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Ch. 9/17

sections 1 and 2 for both

TermDefinition
Bedouins Small groups of nomadic people in Arabia
Muhammad Prophet of Islam whom Muslims recognize as Allah's messenger to all humankind. His teachings form the basis of Islam
Hegira Mohammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam A monotheistic religion whose prophet is Muhammad and whose holy book is the Qur'an; the term means "Achieving peace through surrender to God"
Muslims Followers of Islam
Qur'an The sacred text of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam Behaviors and Obligations that are common to all Muslims, which include the profession of faith, the performance of five daily prayers, the giving of alms, the requirements to fast, and the journey to Mecca, or Hajj
Mosque A building for Muslim prayer
Jihad "struggle for the faith"; can be thought of as an individual or communal struggle; as the latter, the term embraces notions of defending the Muslim community and holy water
Abu Bakr First Muslim caliph; as a close companion and successor to Muhammad, he unified the restive Bedouin tribes of central Arabia into a strong fighting force that he led into Iraq and Syria
Caliph "Successor to the prophet"; title given to the political leader of Muslims
Caliphate Are ruled by a Caliph
Umayyad First ruling dynasty over the Muslims Caliphate
Sunnis "people who follow the Sunnis (way of the Prophet)"; the largest branch of Islam; believes accepted the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad
Shia A branch of Islam who adherents believe that the caliphate must go to a descendant of Muhammad particularly a member of the family of Ali
Sufis A branch of Islam emphasizing a personal , mystical connection with God
Abbasid Dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad dynasty to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years the Abbasid maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic culture and civilization flourished
Harun al-Rashid Fifth Abbasid caliph; under his rule, the Abbasid dynasty reached its height and Islamic culture experienced a flowering
Ghazis Warriors for the Islamic faith
Ottomans Ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, named for Osman I, the founder; at the empires height, the Ottomans ruled a vast area that encompassed southwest Asia, northeast Africa, and southeast Europe
Sultan Title for the ruler of the Ottoman Empire
Janissaries Highly trained solders in the elite guard of the Ottoman Empire
Mehmed ll Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1444 to 1446 and again from 1451 to 1481; he was a strong military leader who conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople
Suleyman l Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566; he expanded the empire and took on a large economic and political role in the affairs of Europe and the Mediterranean
Shah Name given to a king of the Safavid Empire
'Abbas Shah of the Safavid Empire in Persia from 1588 to 1629; his military victories against the Ottoman and skilled administration brought about a golden age in Safavid history
Babur Founder of the Mughal empire of India; he invaded Afghanistan and India and established an empire there
Mughal Empire A Muslim Empire in India
Akbar the Great Mugual emperor of India; he ruled from 1556 until 1605 and continued the policy of conquest put in place under regent Bairim Khan, enlarging his empire to include nearly all of the Indian peninsula north of the Godavari River
Sikhism An Indian religion founded in the late 1400's whose belief blend elements of Hinduism and Islam
Shah Jahan Mughual emperor of Indian from 1628 to 1658; under his rule, Mughal power reached its height and his age was the golden period of Muslim art and architecture
Taj Mahal A mausoleum built by Indian's Mughal emperor Shah Jahan from 1632-1643 to honor his wife
Aurangzeb Mughal emperor of India; he expanded Mughal power to its greatest extant, however, his efforts to impose his strict religious views helped undermine Mughal rule
Created by: evelynguillen