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World Studies 8 WWI


imperialism exploiting the resources of another country
alliances deals made between countries for protection
assassination killing of a political leader to make a statement
nationalism build up armies/navies to prepare for war
militarism build up of armies/navies to prepare for war
Black Hand Serbian terrorist organization who wanted independence
Gravilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Sarajevo location of Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassination
Sick man of Europe Ottoman Empire that was falling apart in the early 1900's
conscription drafting
Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Before WWI Began
Triple Entente France, Russia, U.K before wwi began
pan-Germanism belief that german speaking people should be united into one country
pan-Slavism belief that ethnic Slavs should be united into one country
powder key of Europe countries on the Balkan Peninsula had tremendous ethnic tensions due to being controlled by outsider focres
Franz Ferdinand Austrian archduke and heir to the throne who was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914
steps to the outbreak of World War I A-H declares war on Serbia, Russia joins to help Serbia, Germany joins to help A-H, France joins to help Russia, Germany invades Belgium to get to France, U.K. joins to help Belgium, colonies join to help the U.K. Italy sits out at first
propaganda information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view
pals battalions groups of men from the same school or business who could join the war effort and fight together
boot camps schools that taught recruits to prepare for war
Lord Kitchener British aristocrat in charge of recruiting troops
king's shilling payment for joining the British millitary
tommies British soldiers
Western Front battle lines in northeastern France and Belgium
Eastern Front battle lines between Germany and Russia
Schlieffen Plan German plan to attack France quickly, knock them out of the war, then take on Russia (they wanted to avoid a two-front war, but it didn’t work)
First Battle of the Marne first major battle on the Western Front; France stopped the Germans by sending over 2,000 soldiers to the front in taxi cabs; the battle soon settled into a stalemate
Battle of Tannenberg Russian army was defeated in eastern Germany early in the war and Russia never really recovered
Battle of Galicia Russians defeated the Austria-Hungarians and threw them out of Serbia, but Russia lost over 2.5 million men and almost knocked them out of the war
Battle of Verdun over 700,000 were killed in 10 months over a few miles of land; both sides tried to wear each other down (war of attrition)
Battle of Gallipoli Allies tried to open a Southern Front in Turkey by using Australian and New Zealand forces, but were stopped when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers
Sinking of theLusitania British passenger ship was torpedoed by a German u-boat (submarine) and over 1,100 people were killed (at least 100 were Americans)
Second Battle of the Marne Germany advanced to within 50 miles of Paris in March 1918, but were stopped by American forces who had just arrived in France
Battle of the Somme 4 month long battle where 1 million soldiers were killed or wounded that left. Small Territory gain
trench warfare a system of dug out holes, directly facing the enemy, that led to direct combat with little movement or gain in territory
No Man's Land area between two opposing trenches
Stalemate No progress made by either side during a battle
tanks the first tank was nicknamed Little Willie. It weighed 14 tons, was able to carry a crew of 3, and could go just over 3 mph, but it couldn't cross many trenches (only 8 tanks survived the war)
Airplanes first used for reconnaissance, or spying on the enemy, then, throwing bricks, grenades, and other objects, even rope, which pilots hoped would tangle the enemy aircraft's propeller, became more common; eventually, synchronized machine guns were added
Manfred von Richtofen German flying ace credited with 80 dogfight wins before being killed in 1918
machine guns fired 400-600 rounds per minute, would rapidly overheat and become inoperative without the aid of cooling mechanisms; worth 80 rifles
poison gas led its victims to a slow death, as it destroyed their respiratory organs, or led to massive blistering or blindness; types of poison gas included mustard, chlorine, phosgene
u-Boats German submarines
torpedoes underwater self-propelled warheads fired from German u-boats
bayonets knives fixed to the end of a gun
grenades hand-held bombs that could be thrown at an enemy
mortars a short, stumpy tube designed to fire a projectile at a steep angle so that it falls down on the enemy
motorcycles used to carry messages to the front lines: British Trusty was the most reliable type
Big Bertha largest and most powerful gun in the world; had a range of 9 miles; only 4 made by the Germans
carrier pigeons used to send messages to a home base
Cher Ami American war pigeon who delivered a message that saved 200 men despite being shot twice
trench foot disease caused by wet socks and often led to amputation
morning hate firing off guns in the early morning to relieve stress
lice vermin that caused constant itching that could lead to trench fever
rats vermin that gorged on human remains; could produce 900 offspring in a year
trench cycle rotating soilders thought different levels of trenches
bully beef canned corn beef commonly eaten by soldiers in the trenches
George V King of U.K during WWI
Nicholas II czar if Russia through most of WWI
Wilhelm II Keizer of Germany during WWI
Woodrow Wilson President of the U.S during WWI
Zimmerman Telegram German diplomat's telegram that tried to get Mexico to declare war on the United States
unrestricted submarine warframe German plan to attack any and all ships regardless of status on the war
Fourteen points president wilson's plan for what should happen when the war was over
total warfare when every man, woman, and child is involved in the war somehow
Treaty of Versallies official treaty that ended the war; signed in 1919 (11month,11day,11hour); Germany took plan
reparations payments made for causing war damages
zeppelin German blimps used to drop bombs on cities
new countries formed after World War I Austria, Hungary, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia
women's roles during/after World War I truck drivers, farmers, chimney sweeps, factory workers; women were removed from the jobs at war’s end; after the war women got the right to vote, new independence: lived alone, took jobs, etc.
Created by: daivi