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Egypt Section 5

Ancient Egypt and Kush

QuestionAnswer
Who was one of Kush's most successful military leaders; he conquered Egypt? Piankhi
What is a system of people in different lands who trade goods? trade network
What is another name for a trader? merchant
What are items sent out to other regions? exports
What are goods brought in from other regions? imports
Who was the first woman to rule Kush (from 170 BC to 150 BC)? Queen Shanakhdakheto
Who was the king of the Aksumite army that destroyed Meroe and took over Kush? King Ezana
Who was the Egyptian pharaoh that sent an army to take control of Kush around 1500 BC? Pharaoh Thutmose I
What was the first kingdom established in the interior of Africa? What region was it in? The kingdom of Kush was established in the region of Nubia, south of Egypt.
Describe the region of Nubia. Nubia was once fertile and depended on the flooding of the Nile like Egypt, but today it is mostly desert.
How did the kingdom of Kush begin? Wealthy farmers became the village leaders. One leader took control of all the villages and declared himself king, establishing the kingdom of Kush.
What was the capital city of Kush and describe its location? The capital of Kush was Kerma. It was located on the Nile River south of the third cataract, this made it hard to invade.
Why did Egypt conquer the kingdom of Kush? Egypt felt threatened and feared that Kush's growing army would one day attack Egypt, so Pharaoh Thutmose I sent his army to overtake Kush making it part of the Egyptian empire.
How long did Kush remain part of Egypt and what effects did Egypt have on Kushite culture? Kush was part of the Egyptian empire for 450 years. The Kushites adopted many aspects of Egyptian culture including the Egyptian language, clothing, and religious practices.
When did Kush regain its independence from Egypt? Kush regained its independence from Egypt at the end of the New Kingdom. After that it was not mentioned in any historical records for 200 years.
What happened when Kush conquered Upper Egypt? By 850 BC, Kush became stronger as Egypt became weaker. THe Kushite king, Kashta, conquered Upper Egypt and established relations with Lower Egypt. Kashta's son, Piankhi, later attacked the rest of Egypt because he believed that the gods wanted him to rule all of Egypt.
Describe what Egypt was like during the Kushite Dynasty (25th Dynasty)? The Kushite king, Shabaka, declared himself pharaoh. This dynasty lasted about 40 years. They tried to restore Egyptian cultural practices and traditions. Egyptian culture thrived during this dynasty.
How did the Kushite Dynasty end? After 40 years of rule, the Assyrians from Mesopotamia invaded Egypt and within 10 years had completely driven the Kushite forces out of Egypt.
After the Kushite Dynasty ended, what developments were made to make Kush great again? The Kushites devoted themselves to developing agriculture and trade. Iron ore and wood for furnaces were readily available which let to Kush developing Africa's first iron industry as thier main export for trade.
Other than iron, what were some of later Kush's main exports? What did they import? (exports) gold, iron tools, slaves & ivory (imports) fine jewelry & luxury items
What language was used by the Kushites? What is unique about it? The Kushite language was called Meroitic. Historian still can not read this language.
What role did women play in Kushite society? Kushite women were expected to be active in thier society. They worked in fields, tended to families, and some even had positions of authority.
Who was the first woman to rule Kush and how long was her reign? Queen Shanakhdakheto, she ruled for 20 years.
What problems lead to the weakening of Kush's economy and their decline in power? (1) Kush's agriculture became a problem when their cattle were allowed to over-graze and all the fertile soil was eroded away by the wind. (2)The iron industry also suffered when wood became scarce and the iron furnaces had to shut down and stop producing items for export. (3) Trade routes shifted to other parts of Africa, instead of going through Kush, making trade more difficult.
Which people group ultimately took over Kush and eventually converted them to Christianity? The Aksumite people conquered Kush when King Ezana destroyed Meroe and became the new leader.