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Anatomical Parts of the Respiratory System

vertebral column composed of vertebral segments combined to form a strong but flexible column; the structure from which the entire thorax is suspended, doubles as a conduit for the spinal cord
spinal column provides the points of attachment for numerous muscles by means of various processes; houses the spinal cord, with spinal nerves emerging and entering the spinal cord through spaces between the vertebrae
Five divisions of the vertebral column cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
pelvic girdle part of bony thorax; located at the base of the vertebral column; structure that attaches legs to the vertebral column
pectoral girdle part of bony thorax; permits attachment of upper extremities to the vertebra column; comprised of the scapula and clavicle
scapula part of pectoral girdle (which is part of bony thorax); shoulder blade
clavicle also, “collarbone,” part of pectoral girdle (which is part of bony thorax); provides the anterior support for the shoulder
sternum part of bony thorax; “breastbone;” anterior place of attachment for the ribs
bony thorax comprised of the pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle), the sternum, the ribs and their attachments to the vertebral column, and the pelvic girdle; the cavity in which the lungs are located
trachea part of visceral thorax; provides communication between the external and internal environments; part of the bronchial passageway
carina site of the first bifurcation of the trachea into the two mainstem bronchi
esophagus a long collapsed tube running behind and adjacent to the trachea; provides the conduit to the digestive system
esophagus retains its collapsed condition except when occupied by a bolus of food; passageway through which a bolus of food is propelled by gravity and peristaltic contractions to the stomach
bronchial tree characterized by increasingly smaller tubes as one progresses into the depths of the lungs
terminal bronchiole final tube in the bronchial tree; end tube; smaller than 1 mm in diameter; location of alveoli
alveoli minute air sacs located deep within the lungs; where gas exchange happens; characterized by extremely thin membrane which is permeable to both oxygen and carbon dioxide given proper circumstances
alveolus also, air sac; the point where carbon dioxide is translated out of the blood stream and oxygen is translated into the bloodstream; has extremely thin wall which promotes rapid transfer of gas across the membrane
surfactant produced by some cells; a substance which reduces the surface tension to keep the alveoli from collapsing during respiration
pleural lining provides a mechanism for translating the force of thorax enlargement into inspiration
Two types of pleural linings visceral (covering the lungs) and parietal (covering other structures)
Types of parietal pleurae thoracic, mediastinal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, costal, apical
pleurisy a condition in which the pleural linings of the thoracic cavity are inflamed or lack of lubricants
diaphragm primary muscle of respiration; takes the form of an inverted bowl; striated muscles; has attachments along the lower margin of the rib cage, sternum, and vertebral column
abdominal aponeurosis sheet-like tendon that comprises the central tendon of the diaphragm
Created by: sullivancl