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Ch 10 AP HuG Test
|What are the characteristics of the Paleolithic era?
|Mainly hunters and gatherers; they were nomads; they used simple tools and weapons; there was a lot of space and very few people; the men hunted and the women gathered
|How big was the family group in the Paleolithic era?
|50 people or less
|What was the world population in 9000 B.C.?
|Why was the population so low in the Paleolithic era?
|The main goal was to find food and not have children. The more children=more food that has to be found
|What is the 1st Agricultural Revolution known as?
|the emergence of subsistence agriculture develops independently in several crop hearths
|1st Agricultural Revolution
|Why was agriculture developed independently in many hearths?
|They had no communication with each other so nobody was able to help them.
|taming animals and plants, changes their genetics
|What are some domesticated animals?
|Pigs, Goats, Sheep, Cattle
|When did domestication start?
|8000 BC (10,000 years ago)
|Where is Mesopotamia/ Fertile Crescent located?
|Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
|What did Mesopotamia/ Fertile Crescent domesticate?
|wheat, barly, pigs, cattle, sheep, and dogs
|Where is the Yellow River Valley located?
|What did the Yellow River Valley domesticate?
|rice and chicken
|Where is the Yucatan Peninsula and Incan(Peruvian) located?
|What did the Yucatan Peninsula and Incan domesticate?
|corn, potatoes, squash, beans, turkey, and alpaca
|Where in Sub-Saharan Africa did domestication take place?
|West Africa (in the hook)
|What did West Africa domesticate?
|Sorghum, yams, millet and rice
|When did commercial agriculture begin?
|2nd Agricultural Revolution (1800s)
|The 2nd Agricultural Revolution took place due to what?
|technology from the Industrial Revolution
|What are the characteristics of the 2nd Agricultural Revolution?
|the fields were much larger, but still used the same amount of labor(intense)
|Are many LDCs still in the 2nd Agricultural Revolution?
|What is the 3rd Agricultural Revolution known as?
|the Green Revolution
|When does the Green Revolution happen?
|The later half of the 20th century (1950s-now)
|What was a result of the Green Revolution?
|Genetically modified crops, fertilizers, irrigation techniques, and pesticides
|the trade of crops, livestock, and sometimes disease between the Americas and Europe, Africa, and Asia in the 1st Agricultural Revolution
|producing food needed to survive on a daily basis
|What are the two types of subsistence agriculture?
|intensive and extensive
|What regions do we find nomadic herding?
|Middle East, some of North Africa, North Asia, north of North America, South Africa
|What regions do we find shifting cultivation?
|north of South America, Central Africa, Indonesia, SE Asia (RAINFORESTS! EQUATOR!)
|yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a large amount of land)
|extensive subsistence agriculture
|How much of the world population is represented by extensive subsistence agriculture? Why?
|a very small percentage; land is expensive and rare
|What are the two groups of extensive subsistence agriculture?
|nomadic herding and shifting cultivation(slash and burn)
|How much land does extensive subsistence agriculture require?
|hundreds and hundreds of square miles
|also called pastoral nomadism; wandering but controlled movement of livestock
|What is nomadic herding solely dependent upon?
|What kind of climate does nomadic herding take place?
|dry and cold regions
|How much land is required for nomadic herding?
|large expanses of land
|movement of animals; takes place in nomadic herding
|What percentage of the world participates in nomadic herding?
|a small percentage
|What does nomadic herding prevent?
|when a piece of land is farmed so much to where all of the fertilizer goes away and is left with sand
|nomadic farming-slash and burn
|What kind of climate does shifting cultivation take place in?
|warm, moist lowland climates
|What percentage of the world (approximately) participates in shifting cultivation?
|Shifting cultivation is a renewable strategy if population is high or low?
|What are the cons of shifting cultivation?
|growing population, deforestation, and greenhouse gases
|What does shifting cultivation prevent?
|putting many different plants into one till
|yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land)
|intensive subsistence agriculture
|How many people in LDCs use intensive subsistence agriculture? Why?
|3/4; to feed themselves
|Where does intensive subsistence agriculture take place?
|warm, moist climates; E, SE, and S Asia
|What are the characteristics of intensive subsistence agriculture?
|labor-intensive farming; simple tools; small plots of land; often double cropped
|What is most frequently grown in intensive subsistence agriculture?
|rice, wheat, and barley elsewhere
|increasing phenomenon worldwide; converts waste products to fertilizers, but can cause spread of disease
|urban subsistence farming/ garden plots
|What was the impact of the Green Revolution on subsistence farming?
|irrigation problems, seed genetics, displaced traditional farmers, and population growth uncontrolled
|agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off of the farm
|high yields; high market value; highly perishable; limited field size, repeat plantings; close to the market
|intensive commercial agriculture
|farther from market; cheaper land; large land size required; dry farming/ livestock ranching; low labor requirements; marginal (low) land quality
|extensive commercial agriculture
|refers to the relationship between business and agricultural producers
|there is no difference in the product regardless of which company you buy from
|Is mixed crop and livestock intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|What are the characteristics of mixed crop and livestock?
|crops and animals raised together; crops used to feed animals; crop rotation
|What was the 2 field crop rotation?
|1 field planted; 1 field fallow
|What was the 3 field crop rotation?
|1 summer field; 1 winter field; 1 fallow field
|What was the 4 field crop rotation?
|1 summer field; 1 winter field; 1 field with root crops; and 1 field with clover
|Is dairy farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|it can be both
|Why has the size of the milk shed grown?
|a functional region of dairy; the dairy is the center and everything that dairy serves is the surrounding region
|Is grain farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|What is the most common grain crop?
|What is the most common grain?
|What is the most commonly exported crop?
|1/2 of the exported grain comes from where?
|US and Canada
|Is livestock ranching intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|What are the characteristics of livestock ranching?
|low start up cost; low profit; animals often fattened before slaughter on feedlots; declined in popularity since the 1860s
|Where does Mediterranean farming take place?
|Mediterranean climates around the Mediterranean sea (Greece, Italy, France, North Africa), California, Chile, Australia
|common-growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
|Where does horticulture take place?
|What are the most common crops in Mediterranean farming?
|olives and grapes
|Is commercial gardening and fruit farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|Where is commercial gardening and fruit farming most common?
|What are the characteristics of commercial gardening and fruit farming?
|foods are highly perishable; truck farming; hire migrant workers to reduce cost
|Is plantation farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both?
|What climates are plantation farms located in?
|What are the characteristics of plantation farming?
|isolated locations; import cheap labor; owned by MDCs but located in LDCs; only type of agriculture in LDCs
|What types of crops do plantation farms grow?
|luxury crops (cotton, tea, sugar cane, rubber)
|farms where the work is done by migrants; farmer does not live at the farm; no one is at the farm unless it is planting or harvesting season
|Von Thunen's model suggested that agriculture activities are oriented in space due to their what?
|proximity to an urban area and the price of rent
|What did the land near the market equal according to Von Thunen's model?
|high-value crops, intensive land use because the rent is higher
|What did the land farther away from the market equal according to Von Thunen's model?
|low-value crops, extensive land use because rent is lower
|What were Von Thunen's three assumptions?
|isolation, land characteristics, and transportation (study these meanings on notes)
|What were the factors affecting Von Thunen's model?
|topography, soil fertility, climate, and changes in market
|What are the problems for MDC farmers?
|overproduction; difficult to sustain the land
|due to the green revolution (pesticides, fertilizers) farmers can produce much more food than is needed
|What are the solutions to overproduction for MDC farmers?
|farmers are encouraged to plant less; government pays farmers when crop prices are low; government buys surplus and sells it or donates it to foreign countries
|What is the solution for the problem of the difficulty to sustain land?
|maintains and enhances the environment
|farming without pesticides or fertilizer that is not natural
|What are the characteristics of sustainable agriculture?
|organic farming; fewer pesticides and chemicals; protects the soil from erosion through ridge tillage; better integration of crops and livestock
|farming the same ridges over and over again
|What does ridge tillage prevent?
|desertification and erosion
|when salt gets into soil (kills the plants)
|What are the problems for LDC farmers?
|population is growing rapidly; technology is expensive and comes from MDCs
|What is the solution for LDC farmers on the rapid population growth?
|new farming methods with plows and manure (plow and manure are not very effective); land is left fallow for shorter periods of time
|What is the solution for LDC farmers on how expensive technology is and that it comes from MDCs?
|Grow export crops to raise money (coffee, sugar, cocaine, opium)
|What are examples of technology that LDC farmers do not have that is very useful?
|tractor, combine, fertilizer, hoses, refrigerators
|What are the ways to increase food supply?
|increase land by preventing desertification; increase productivity by spreading the Green Revolution; women in agriculture; identify new food sources; increase exports from other countries/ make foods seem better to eat
|How would more women involved in agriculture industry help the world's food problem?
|Women that have a job have less children. So, we would have more food and a limited population.
|What is an example of a new food source?
|parts of a country lacking access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods; lack of grocery stores, farmers' markets, and healthy food providers; heavy on local quickie marts (processed, sugar, fat laden foods)
|Where are food deserts found?