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Ch 10 AP HuG Test

What are the characteristics of the Paleolithic era? Mainly hunters and gatherers; they were nomads; they used simple tools and weapons; there was a lot of space and very few people; the men hunted and the women gathered
How big was the family group in the Paleolithic era? 50 people or less
What was the world population in 9000 B.C.? 5-10 million
Why was the population so low in the Paleolithic era? The main goal was to find food and not have children. The more children=more food that has to be found
What is the 1st Agricultural Revolution known as? Neolithic era
the emergence of subsistence agriculture develops independently in several crop hearths 1st Agricultural Revolution
Why was agriculture developed independently in many hearths? They had no communication with each other so nobody was able to help them.
taming animals and plants, changes their genetics domestication
What are some domesticated animals? Pigs, Goats, Sheep, Cattle
When did domestication start? 8000 BC (10,000 years ago)
Where is Mesopotamia/ Fertile Crescent located? Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
What did Mesopotamia/ Fertile Crescent domesticate? wheat, barly, pigs, cattle, sheep, and dogs
Where is the Yellow River Valley located? East Asia
What did the Yellow River Valley domesticate? rice and chicken
Where is the Yucatan Peninsula and Incan(Peruvian) located? Latin America
What did the Yucatan Peninsula and Incan domesticate? corn, potatoes, squash, beans, turkey, and alpaca
Where in Sub-Saharan Africa did domestication take place? West Africa (in the hook)
What did West Africa domesticate? Sorghum, yams, millet and rice
When did commercial agriculture begin? 2nd Agricultural Revolution (1800s)
The 2nd Agricultural Revolution took place due to what? technology from the Industrial Revolution
What are the characteristics of the 2nd Agricultural Revolution? the fields were much larger, but still used the same amount of labor(intense)
Are many LDCs still in the 2nd Agricultural Revolution? YES
What is the 3rd Agricultural Revolution known as? the Green Revolution
When does the Green Revolution happen? The later half of the 20th century (1950s-now)
What was a result of the Green Revolution? Genetically modified crops, fertilizers, irrigation techniques, and pesticides
the trade of crops, livestock, and sometimes disease between the Americas and Europe, Africa, and Asia in the 1st Agricultural Revolution Colombian Exchange
producing food needed to survive on a daily basis subsistence agriculture
What are the two types of subsistence agriculture? intensive and extensive
What regions do we find nomadic herding? Middle East, some of North Africa, North Asia, north of North America, South Africa
What regions do we find shifting cultivation? north of South America, Central Africa, Indonesia, SE Asia (RAINFORESTS! EQUATOR!)
yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a large amount of land) extensive subsistence agriculture
How much of the world population is represented by extensive subsistence agriculture? Why? a very small percentage; land is expensive and rare
What are the two groups of extensive subsistence agriculture? nomadic herding and shifting cultivation(slash and burn)
How much land does extensive subsistence agriculture require? hundreds and hundreds of square miles
also called pastoral nomadism; wandering but controlled movement of livestock nomadic herding
What is nomadic herding solely dependent upon? natural forage
What kind of climate does nomadic herding take place? dry and cold regions
How much land is required for nomadic herding? large expanses of land
movement of animals; takes place in nomadic herding transhumance
What percentage of the world participates in nomadic herding? a small percentage
What does nomadic herding prevent? desertification
when a piece of land is farmed so much to where all of the fertilizer goes away and is left with sand desertification
nomadic farming-slash and burn Shifting Cultivation
What kind of climate does shifting cultivation take place in? warm, moist lowland climates
What percentage of the world (approximately) participates in shifting cultivation? about 5%
Shifting cultivation is a renewable strategy if population is high or low? LOW
What are the cons of shifting cultivation? growing population, deforestation, and greenhouse gases
What does shifting cultivation prevent? desertification
putting many different plants into one till intertillage
yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land) intensive subsistence agriculture
How many people in LDCs use intensive subsistence agriculture? Why? 3/4; to feed themselves
Where does intensive subsistence agriculture take place? warm, moist climates; E, SE, and S Asia
What are the characteristics of intensive subsistence agriculture? labor-intensive farming; simple tools; small plots of land; often double cropped
What is most frequently grown in intensive subsistence agriculture? rice, wheat, and barley elsewhere
increasing phenomenon worldwide; converts waste products to fertilizers, but can cause spread of disease urban subsistence farming/ garden plots
What was the impact of the Green Revolution on subsistence farming? irrigation problems, seed genetics, displaced traditional farmers, and population growth uncontrolled
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off of the farm commercial agriculture
high yields; high market value; highly perishable; limited field size, repeat plantings; close to the market intensive commercial agriculture
farther from market; cheaper land; large land size required; dry farming/ livestock ranching; low labor requirements; marginal (low) land quality extensive commercial agriculture
refers to the relationship between business and agricultural producers agribusiness
there is no difference in the product regardless of which company you buy from commodity
Is mixed crop and livestock intensive, extensive, or can it be both? extensive
What are the characteristics of mixed crop and livestock? crops and animals raised together; crops used to feed animals; crop rotation
What was the 2 field crop rotation? 1 field planted; 1 field fallow
What was the 3 field crop rotation? 1 summer field; 1 winter field; 1 fallow field
What was the 4 field crop rotation? 1 summer field; 1 winter field; 1 field with root crops; and 1 field with clover
Is dairy farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both? it can be both
Why has the size of the milk shed grown? transportation advancements
a functional region of dairy; the dairy is the center and everything that dairy serves is the surrounding region milk shed
Is grain farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both? often extensive
What is the most common grain crop? cereal grains
What is the most common grain? wheat
What is the most commonly exported crop? grain
1/2 of the exported grain comes from where? US and Canada
Is livestock ranching intensive, extensive, or can it be both? extensive
What are the characteristics of livestock ranching? low start up cost; low profit; animals often fattened before slaughter on feedlots; declined in popularity since the 1860s
Where does Mediterranean farming take place? Mediterranean climates around the Mediterranean sea (Greece, Italy, France, North Africa), California, Chile, Australia
common-growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers horticulture
Where does horticulture take place? Mediterranean farming
What are the most common crops in Mediterranean farming? olives and grapes
Is commercial gardening and fruit farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both? intensive
Where is commercial gardening and fruit farming most common? SE US
What are the characteristics of commercial gardening and fruit farming? foods are highly perishable; truck farming; hire migrant workers to reduce cost
Is plantation farming intensive, extensive, or can it be both? extensive
What climates are plantation farms located in? tropical climates
What are the characteristics of plantation farming? isolated locations; import cheap labor; owned by MDCs but located in LDCs; only type of agriculture in LDCs
What types of crops do plantation farms grow? luxury crops (cotton, tea, sugar cane, rubber)
farms where the work is done by migrants; farmer does not live at the farm; no one is at the farm unless it is planting or harvesting season suitcase farms
Von Thunen's model suggested that agriculture activities are oriented in space due to their what? proximity to an urban area and the price of rent
What did the land near the market equal according to Von Thunen's model? high-value crops, intensive land use because the rent is higher
What did the land farther away from the market equal according to Von Thunen's model? low-value crops, extensive land use because rent is lower
What were Von Thunen's three assumptions? isolation, land characteristics, and transportation (study these meanings on notes)
What were the factors affecting Von Thunen's model? topography, soil fertility, climate, and changes in market
What are the problems for MDC farmers? overproduction; difficult to sustain the land
due to the green revolution (pesticides, fertilizers) farmers can produce much more food than is needed overproduction
What are the solutions to overproduction for MDC farmers? farmers are encouraged to plant less; government pays farmers when crop prices are low; government buys surplus and sells it or donates it to foreign countries
What is the solution for the problem of the difficulty to sustain land? sustainable agriculture
maintains and enhances the environment sustainable agriculture
farming without pesticides or fertilizer that is not natural organic farming
What are the characteristics of sustainable agriculture? organic farming; fewer pesticides and chemicals; protects the soil from erosion through ridge tillage; better integration of crops and livestock
farming the same ridges over and over again ridge tillage
What does ridge tillage prevent? desertification and erosion
when salt gets into soil (kills the plants) salinization
What are the problems for LDC farmers? population is growing rapidly; technology is expensive and comes from MDCs
What is the solution for LDC farmers on the rapid population growth? new farming methods with plows and manure (plow and manure are not very effective); land is left fallow for shorter periods of time
What is the solution for LDC farmers on how expensive technology is and that it comes from MDCs? Grow export crops to raise money (coffee, sugar, cocaine, opium)
What are examples of technology that LDC farmers do not have that is very useful? tractor, combine, fertilizer, hoses, refrigerators
What are the ways to increase food supply? increase land by preventing desertification; increase productivity by spreading the Green Revolution; women in agriculture; identify new food sources; increase exports from other countries/ make foods seem better to eat
How would more women involved in agriculture industry help the world's food problem? Women that have a job have less children. So, we would have more food and a limited population.
What is an example of a new food source? aquaculture
parts of a country lacking access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods; lack of grocery stores, farmers' markets, and healthy food providers; heavy on local quickie marts (processed, sugar, fat laden foods) food desert
Where are food deserts found? impoverished areas
Created by: colorguard101
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