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W. Hist -Topic 12

W. Hist -Topic 12 vocabulary

TermDefinition
absolute monarch a form of government in which a ruler has complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs
divine right idea that a ruler’s authority came directly from God
armada fleet of ships
intendant official appointed by French king Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers
balance of power distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
mercenary soldier serving in a foreign country for pay
depopulation reduction in the number of people in an area
westernization adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
boyar landowning noble in Russia under the tsars
autocrat leader with unlimited power
warm-water port port that is free of ice year round
partition a division into pieces
dissenter Protestant whose views and opinions differed from those of the Church of England
limited monarchy government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers
constitutional government government whose power is defined and limited by law
cabinet parliamentary advisors to the king who originally met in a small room, or cabinet
oligarchy government in which ruling power belongs to a few people
natural law unchanging principle, discovered through reason, that governs human conduct
social contract an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
natural rights rights that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property
philosophe French for “philosopher”; French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment
laissez faire policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
free market market regulated by the natural laws of supply and demand
censorship restriction on access to ideas and information
baroque ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s
rococo personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s that featured designs with the shapes of leaves, shells, and flowers
enlightened despot absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
popular sovereignty limited government based on the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances
federal republic government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states
checks and balances system in which each branch of a government has the power to monitor and limit the actions of the other two
ancien régime old order system of government in pre-revolutionary France
estate social class
bourgeoisie the middle class
deficit spending situation in which the government spends more money than it takes in
emigre a person who flee his or her country for political reasons
sans-culottes members of the working class who made the French Revolution more radical; called such because men wore long trousers instead of the fancy knee breeches that the upper class wore
suffrage right to vote
guillotine device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading
nationalism a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one's country
plebiscite a ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue
annex add a territory to an existing state or country
guerrilla warfare fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids
abdicate give up or step down from power
Created by: brittlloyd