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SOL Review: Unit 4-6

Persia, India, China, Greece, and Rome

The Persian Empire was built on what other civilizations? Indus, Mesopotamian, and Nile River civilizations
Where was the Persian Empire located? Present-day Iran
What are the characteristics of the Persian Empire? 1) Tolerance of conquered peoples 2) Development of an imperial bureaucracy 3) Construction of a road system 4) Practice of Zoroastrianism
What religion was practiced by Persia? Zoroastrianism
What belief is associated with Zoroastrianism? Belief in two opposing forces in the universe
Where did the classical Indian civilization begin? Indus River Valley
Where did the Indian civilization spread? To the Ganges River Valley and then throughout the Indian subcontinent
Why was the Indian civilization able to spread with little interruption? Geographic location - physical barriers such as Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean made invasion difficult
What are historians divided on in relation to the development of Indian civilization? They are divided over whether migrations occurred or whether Indian civilization grew from within
What do historians agree upon in relation to the development of Indian civilization? That the Harappan civilization and Vedic period shaped Indian society
What provided migration routes into the Indian subcontinent? Mountain passes in the Hindu Kush
What were the important rivers in the Indian subcontinent? Indus and Ganges Rivers
What are two cities found in the Indus River Valley civilization? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
The caste system was rooted in what? The varnas and the jati system
What are varnas? Were idealized in the Vedas to organize society equally by skill
What are jatis? Used to describe divisions by occupations; governed by birth
Who is Asoka? Mauryan Emperor who continued the political unification of much of India and spread Buddhism
What were the contributions of the Mauryan Empire? 1) Spread of Buddhism 2) Free hospitals 3) Veterinary clinics 4) Good roads
What empire is considered the Golden Age of classical Indian culture? Gupta Empire
What were the contributions of the Gupta Empire? 1) Mathematics (concept of zero) 2) Medical advances (setting bones) 3) Astronomy (concept of a round earth) 4) New textiles 5) Literature
What influenced Indian society and culture and is still practiced in India today? Hinduism
What are the major beliefs of Hinduism? 1) Belief in many forms of one God 2) Reincarnation 3) Karma
What is reincarnation? Rebirth based on karma
What is karma? Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
What are the sacred writings of Hinduism? Vedas and Upanishads
How did Hinduism spread? along major trade routes
Where did Buddhism start? Present-day Nepal
Who is the founder of Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Who helped strengthen Buddhism as a major faith by sending missionaries throughout Asia? Asoka
What are the major beliefs of the Buddhism? Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
Where did Asoka's missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism to? China and other parts of Asia
Where was the classical Chinese civilization centered? Huang He River (Yellow River)
Why was the Great Wall built? To protect from migratory invaders from the north.
Who built the Great Wall? Qin Shi Huangdi
Who governed China? A succession of ruling families called dynasties.
What is the Mandate of Heaven? Chinese rulers were given the authority to rule by Heaven as long as their rule was just
What is the Silk Road? Facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome
What products were produced by classical China? civil service system, paper, porcelain, and silk
How did Confucianism impact the social order in China? 1) Belief that humans are essentially good, not bad 2) Respect for elders 3) Code of harmony 4) Emphasis on learning 5) Ancestor worship
How did Taoism impact the formation of Chinese culture and values? 1) Humility 2) Simple life and inner peace 3) Harmony with nature
What does the Yin and Yang represent? Opposites for Confucianism and Taoism
Where did Chinese forms of Buddhism spread? throughout Asia
What shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization? The physical geography of the Aegean Basin
When did the Greek civilizations emerge? After the river valley civilizations
The Greek civilization became the first major civilization on which continent? Europe
What are the major geographic features of Greece? 1) Southeastern-most region of Europe 2) Surrounded by water on three sides, with smaller peninsulas 3) Mountains served as natural barriers and prevented large-scale farming 4) Deep bays and natural harbors along the coastlines
What was Greek mythology based on? polytheistic religion
What did the Greeks use mythology to explain? 1) natural phenomena 2) human qualities 3) life events
Name some Greek gods and goddess Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, and Aphrodite
Where do many of Western civilization's symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from? Greek mythology
True or False: Men, women, and slaves all had clearly defined roles in Greek society. True
Greek culture was divided into what groups? Free and enslaved
How did people becomes slaves in Greece? 1) Being captured as a prisoner of war 2) Born to enslaved parents 3) Failing to repay a loan or debt
True or False: Enslaved people did not have power, political rights, or status. True
What role did slavery play in most Greek families? Most families owned slaves as household servants or laborers
Which Greek city-state had the most democratic system of government? Athens
What promoted civic and commercial life in Greece? Greek cities (polis)
Who had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in Greece? Citizens (free adult males)
Who did not have any political rights in Greece? Women, foreigners, and slaves
What were the stages in the evolution of Athenian government? monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, and democracy
Who were Athenian tyrants who worked for reform? Draco and Solon
What democratic principles originated in Athens? direct democracy, public debate, duties of citizenship
What type of government did Sparta have? Oligarchy (rule by a small group)
What kind of social structure did Sparta have? Rigid
What type of society did Sparta have? Militaristic and aggressive
What divided the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta? Contrasting philosophies of government (democracy vs. oligarchy)
When did the Persian War occur? 499 - 449 BC
Who fought in the Persian War? United Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire
What was the outcome of the Persian War? The Greeks defeated the Persian Empire and preserved their political independence.
What Athenian victories over the Persians left the Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea? Marathon and Salamis
What impact did the Persian War have on Athens? Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.
When did the Golden Age of Pericles occur? Mostly between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
How did Pericles impact democracy? Extended democracy; most adult males had an equal voice
How did Pericles impact Athens? Had Athens rebuilt after the destruction in the Persian War, including Parthenon
When did the Peloponnesian War occur? 431-404 BC
Who fought in the Peloponnesian War? Athens and Delian League vs. Sparta and Peloponnesian League
What helped to cause the Peloponnesian War? Competition for control of the Greek world between Athens and Sparta
What was the outcome of the Peloponnesian War? Weakened Athens and Sparta; set the stage for Macedonia conquests of Greece and the end of Greek democracy
How did the Greek civilization expand? Through trade and colonization
The expansion of the Greek civilization led to the spread of what? Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black Seas
What culture became one of the foundation stones of Western civilization? Athenian culture during the classical era
How did Phillip of Macedonia's conquest impact Greece? Returned Greece to a monarchy
How did Alexander the Great's conquest impact Greece? Spread Greek influence in Egypt and Near East
Which Greeks made contributions in the area of drama? Aeschylus and Sophocles
Which Greek made contributions in the area of poetry? What poems did he write? Homer; Iliad and Odyssey
Which Greeks made contributions in the area of history? Herodotus and Thucydides
Which Greek made contributions in the area of sculpture? Phidias
Which Greeks made contributions in the area of science? Archimedes and Hippocrates
Which Greeks made contributions in the area of mathematics? Euclid and Pythagoras
Which Greeks made contributions in the area of philosophy? Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
What are the three types of columns used in Greek architecture? Doric (Parthenon), Ionic, and Corinthian
What protected the Italian peninsula? The sea and the arc of the Alps mountains
When did the Rome emerge as the dominant civilization around the Mediterranean and in Europe? After the collapse of Alexander the Great's empire
Where was Rome located? Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Basin
How did Rome's location beneficial? Distant from eastern Mediterranean powers
How was Rome's location on the Mediterranean beneficial? Provided protection and seaborne commerce (trade)
What was Roman mythology based on? Greek mythology; polytheistic religion
Besides the Greek civilization, where do many of Western civilization's symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from? Roman mythology
Roman society was divided into what three groups? Patricians, Plebeians, and Slaves
Who are Patricians? Wealthy individuals whose families were eligible to hold public office; few in number
Who are Plebeians? Poorer individuals who could not hold office; majority of the population
How did someone become a slave in Rome? 1) Captured as a prisoner of war 2) Born to enslaved parents 3) Fail to repay a loan or debts Not based on race
What did the Romans use mythology to explain? natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
Name some Roman gods and goddess Jupiter (Zeus), Juno (Hera), Apollo, Diana (Artemis), Minerva (Athena), and Venus (Aphrodite)
What type of government did the Roman Republic have? representative democracy
Who was excluded from the governing process in the Roman Republic? women, most aliens (non-Romans living in the Republic), and slaves
What helped to spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Roman Empire? Conquests and trade
Who was considered a citizen in the Roman Republic? Patrician and plebeian men and selected foreigners
What are some examples of the responsibilities of citizenship under the Roman Republic? pay taxes, military service
What features of democracy developed in the Roman Republic? representative democracy, assemblies, The Senate, Consuls, Laws of Rome codified as the Twelve Tables
Give three examples of contributions made by Rome in the area of art and architecture Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
Give three examples of contributions made by Rome in the area of technology Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches
What contributions in the area of science did Ptolemy make? Geocentric theory - the Earth is the center of the universe
Give an example of contributions made by Rome in the area of medicine Emphasis on public health - public baths, public water systems, medical schools
What language was used by the Romans? Latin, became basis for Romance Languages
What contributions in the area of literature did Virgil make? Aeneid
What contribution in the area of law did Rome make? The principle of "innocent until proven guilty" from Twelve Tables
After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, what was Roman able to do? Dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture
Why did Rome and Carthage fight in the Punic Wars? Competition for trade
Which Carthaginian general invaded the Italian Peninsula? Hannibal
What was the outcome of the Punic Wars? The destruction of Carthage and expanded trade and wealth for Rome
Where did Roman culture spread? Mediterranean Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of Eastern Mediterranean) and Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)
What were the causes of the decline of the Roman Republic? (hint: there are 6) 1) spread of slavery in the agricultural system 2) migration of small farmers into cities; unemployment 3) civil war over Julius Caesar 4) devaluation of currency; inflation 5) First Triumvirate 6) Julius Caesar: Seizure of power, assassination
When the Roman Republic ended, what was it replaced with? Imperial regime
Who was Rome's first emperor? Augustus Caesar
Who did Augustus Caesar defeat in the civil war for power? Marc Antony
What did Augustus Caesar do for Rome? Unified and enlarged the empire using imperial authority and the military
What was one leadership challenge faced by imperial Rome? Failure to provide for the peaceful succession of emperors
What is the Pax Romana? Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule; a period of expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire
What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana? - Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade - Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads - Promoted prosperity and stability
What was the social impact of the Pax Romana? - Returned stability to social classes - Increased emphasis on the family
What was the political impact of the Pax Romana? - Created a civil service - Developed a uniform rule of law
How did Rome's geographic size cause the decline of the Western Roman Empire? Difficulty of defense and administration
How did Rome's economy cause the decline of the Western Roman Empire? The cost of defense and devaluation of Roman currency
How did Rome's military cause the decline of the Western Roman Empire? Increasing reliance on foreigners to serve in and to lead the Roman army
How did Rome's political problems cause the decline of the Western Roman Empire? Civil conflict and weak administration
How did invasions cause the decline of the Western Roman Empire? Germanic migrations and settlement
Why did the population in the Western Roman Empire decline? Epidemic diseases
Who established a second capital in the Eastern Roman Empire? What did he call it? Constantine, Constantinople
When did the Western Roman Empire cease to exist? In 476 AD when it no longer had a Roman emperor
The Eastern Roman Empire became known as - Byzantine Empire
Why did Christianity present a powerful challenge to the Roman religion? It's monotheistic beliefs conflicted with the polytheistic beliefs of the Romans.
Christianity's roots can be traced to what other religion? Judaism
Who is considered the founder of Christianity? Jesus of Nazareth
Who do Christians believe Jesus is? Messiah, Son and incarnation of God
What type of religion is Christianity? Monotheistic
What is the New Testament? Part of the Bible that contains accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians
What do Christians believe about what happens after you die? Life after death
Who also helped to establish Christian doctrines? Early church councils
Why did Christianity spread? Popularity of the message; early martyrs inspired others
How did Christianity spread? Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire
How did Emperor Constantine impact the Church in the late Roman Empire? He converted to Christianity and made it legal.
What religion became the state religion of Rome during the late Roman Empire? Christianity
What became the source of moral authority in the late Roman Empire? The Church
What became the main unifying force of Western Europe? The Church
What sometimes divided Christians during the late Roman Empire? Heresies such as Arianism and Donatism
What caused the influence of the Roman Catholic Church to grow? Decline of secular authority
Who preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements? Monasteries
How did missionaries help increase the influence of the Roman Catholic Church? Carried Christianity and the Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes
Who anointed Charlemagne emperor in 800 AD? The Pope
Who served the religious and social needs of the people? Parish priests
Created by: rafterj