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SOL Review: Unit 1-3

Historical Skills, Early Man, RVCs

What shaped the lives of early hunter-gatherer societies? the physical environment
Where did homo sapiens emerge? East Africa
When did homo sapiens emerge? Between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago
Where did homo sapiens migrate to? Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
What did early humans' survival depend on? the availability of wild plants and animals
What did early humans develop that helped them overcome the limits set by the physical environment? culture
What are the characteristics of the Paleolithic societies? 1) nomadic; migrating in search of food, water, and shelter 2) invented the first tools and simple weapons 3) learned how to make and use fire 4) developed oral language 5) created cave art
What did Neolithic societies develop that was a major step in the advancement of human social organization? agriculture and permanent settlements
What are the characteristics of the Neolithic societies? 1) developed agriculture 2) domesticated animals 3) used advanced tools 4) made pottery 5) developed weaving skills
What do archaeologists study to learn about past cultures? human remains, settlements, fossils, and artifacts
What do archaeologists use to analyze fossils and artifacts? scientific tests, such as radio carbon dating
What is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age? Stonehenge
What are examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent that are studied by archaeologists? Aleppo and Jericho
What is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently under excavation in Anatolia? Catalhoyuk
During the New Stone Age, were did permanent settlements appear? River valleys and around the Fertile Crescent
Why did people settle in river valleys? 1) offered rich soil 2) provided irrigation water 3) tended to be in locations easily protected from invasions
When did early river valley civilizations first appear? about 3500 to 500 BC
Where did the Mesopotamian civilization develop? Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys (Southwest Asia)
Where did the Egyptian civilization develop? Nile River Valley and Nile Delta (Africa)
Where did the Indian civilization develop? Indus River Valley (South Asia)
Where did the Chinese civilization develop? Huang He Valley (East Asia)
When did the Hebrews and Phoenicians appear? about 2000 to 500 BC
Which civilization settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley? Hebrews
Which civilization settled along the Mediterranean coast? Phoenicians
What social patterns were developed by river valley civilizations? 1) Hereditary rulers 2) Rigid class system where slavery was accepted
What is a dynasty? A family of rulers
Who ruled in Egypt? Pharaohs
What political patterns were developed by river valley civilizations? 1) World's first states (i.e. city-states, kingdoms, empires) 2) Centralized government, often based on religious authority 3) Written law codes
What are the Ten Commandments? Written law code of the Hebrews which state moral and religious conduct of Jews
What is the Code of Hammurabi? Written law code created by King Hammurabi
What economic patterns were developed by river valley civilizations? 1) Use of metal tools and weapons 2) Increasing agricultural surplus: better tools, plows, irrigation 3) Increasing trade along rivers and by the sea (Phoenicians) 4) Development of the world's first cities 5) Development of the practice of slavery
What type of religion was practiced by most early civilizations? Polytheism
What type of religion did the Hebrews practice? Monotheism/Judaism
What continued to influence Hebrew monotheism, but decreased in influence over time? Mesopotamian religion
What played a major part of life in all early civilizations Religion
Who is the founder of Judaism? Abraham
What is the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Monotheism
Who were the first to become monotheists? Hebrews
Who is Moses? Received the Ten Commandments from God on Mt. Sinai
What are the beliefs, traditions, and customs of Judaism? 1) Belief in one God 2) Torah 3) Ten Commandments 4) Covenant
What is the Torah? Hebrew holy book which contains the written records and beliefs of the Jews
What is a covenant? A sacred promise or vow
What spread Judaism? Exile and diaspora
What did early civilizations develop that facilitated the preservation and spread of knowledge? Language and writing
What are pictograms? Earliest written symbols
What written language was developed by Egypt? Hieroglyphics
What written language was developed by Sumer? Cuneiform
What written language was developed by Phoenicia? Alphabet
What written language was developed by India? Sanskrit
What written language was developed by China? Oracle bone script
What is an artifact? An object or tool that tells us about the people from the past.
What is a primary source? An artifact, document, image, or other source of information that was created during the time under study.
What is a secondary source? A document, image, or other source of information that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere.
What are the Five Themes of Geography? Location, Place, Region, Movement, and Human-Environment Interaction
What is location? Defined according to its position on the earth's surface; where is it?
What is place? Locations having distinctive features that give them meaning and character that differ from other locations; what is it like?
What is region? A unit on the earth's surface that has unifying characteristics; how are places similar or different?
What is movement? The way people, products, and information move from one place to another; how do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another?
What is human-environment interaction? The relationship between people and their environment; how do people relate to the physical world?
Created by: rafterj