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Egypt Section 4

Egyptian Achievements

What is papyrus? A long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds that the ancient Egyptians used to write on
What are hieroglyphics? The ancient Egyptian writing system that used picture symbols
What is the Rosetta Stone? A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
What is a sphinx? An imaginary creature with a human head and the body of a lion that was often shown on Egyptian statutes
What is an obelisk? A tall, pointed, four-sided pillar in ancient Egypt
Who was King Tutankhamen? An Egyptian pharaoh whose tomb, filled with treasures, was discovered by archaeologists in 1922
Where were the tombs of New Kingdom pharaohs found, including King Tut's tomb? In the Valley of the Kings
Who found King Tutankhamen's tomb? When? Howard Carter and Lord Carnavon found the tomb in 1922
How long did King Tut rule and how old was he when he was pharaoh? Tut ruled for 10 years from about the age of 7 to 17 (or 8 to 18)
Describe 4 unique things about hieroglyphics. (1) one of the world's first writing systems (2) used more than 600 symbols (3) could be written horizontally or vertically OR from left to right or right to left (4) It began around 3300 BC but historians couldn't read it until 1799 AD
How was hieroglyphic writing different from our writing today? How was it different from cuneiform used by the Mesopotamians? Hieroglyphics used 600 symbols rather than our 26 letters, it could be written in any direction, and unlike cuneiform which used symbols for objects, hieroglyphic symbols could represent sounds.
What was the benefit of writing on papyrus? It was a paper-like material made from reeds. It was easier to write on and keep than clay tablets, plus it didn't decay in Egypt's hot climate.
Why was finding the Rosetta Stone so important to scholars? The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 by a French soldier. It was the same message written in 3 different languages (hieroglyphics, Greek, & demotic) which was the key to deciphering hieroglyphics.
List 5 ways/objects Egyptians used to decorate their temples. (1) columns (2) obelisks (3) paintings (4) hieroglyphics (5) statues
Why were tombs filled with art, jewelry, and other treasures? The Egyptians believed that the dead needed these items in the afterlife.
Why did pharaohs, like Ramses the Great, build huge temples? The huge temples were built to honor the gods and/or to display the pharaoh's wealth and power.
What were temples to the Egyptians and why did they visit them? Egyptian temples were built as homes for the gods. The people visited them to worship the gods, offer gifts to and ask for favors from the gods.
Name 2 famous Egyptian temples. (1) Temple of Karnak: great temple, built to honor the sun god (2) Abu Simbel: temple carved out of sandstone cliffs
What was the most sacred part of Egyptian temples and what did the Egyptians believe would offer protection to the temples? The most sacred part was the sanctuary and they would line the path to the entrance with sphinxes for protection.
What was the purpose of art in Egyptian temples and tombs? Temple art was created to honor the gods and tomb art was created for the dead to enjoy in the afterlife.
Describe the way Egyptian art looked. (1) historical events, religious events, and everyday life (2) bodies shown sideways, but heads and shoulders shown straight on (3) people would be different sizes, pharaohs always larger, but animals would be actual size
Describe other Egyptian achievements in medicine, math, and science. (1) Medicine: medical books, antibiotics, doctors were priests (2) Math: had math rules for building (architecture) (3) Science: identified the first 5 planets, planets were known as "the stars that know no rest"