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Chapter 5

Polis A city-state of ancient Greece
Acropolis A walled, high area surrounding a polis
Agora An open area that served as a meeting place and market in early Greek city-states
Helots In Ancient Greece, state slaves
Hoplites Foot solders in Ancient Greece
Hubris Great pride
Democracy A government run by people
Solon Athenian statesman; he introduced the first civil democracy in Greece and created the Boule
Tyrant A strong man who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people
Cleisthenes Ancient Greek ruler often called "father of democracy." He increased the size of the council that governed Athens to 500, and he reorganized Athenian tribes on a geographical rather then familiar basis
Direct Democracy The type of governing system where all people vote directly on an issue
Archon A chief of state of ancient Athens
Phalanx A military formation composed of rows of solders standing shoulder to shoulder carrying pikes or heavy spears
Pericles Athenian statesman;he encouraged the spreed of democracy in Athens and the growth of the city-states power
Socrates Greek philosopher of Athens; his teaching style was based on asking questions. He wanted people to question their own beliefs. He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority
Plato Greek Philosopher; a student of Socrates, he started a school in Athens called the academy. In The Republic he describes an ideal society run by philosopher-kings
Aristotle Greek Philosopher and student of Plato; he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry; his work later became the basis for medieval scholasticism
Reason clear and ordered thinking
Logic The process or making inferences
Homer Greek poet, he wrote the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, which tells stories set during and after the Trojan War
Lyric Poetry A type of poetry that gained its name from the lyre, an instrument that played while poetry was sung
Herodotus Greek Historian; his most famous work The Histories, which describes major events in the Persian War
Thucydides Greek Historian of Athens; he wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. He is regarded as the first critical historian and is often ranked as the greatest historian of antiquity
Alexander the great King of Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia; he considered one of the greatest generals of all time
Hellenistic The blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Eratosthenes Greek Astronomer and geographer; he calculated the circumference of the globe using careful observations and simple geometry
Archimedes Greek Mathematician; and inventor; he was known for his work in geometry, physics, and mechanics
Euclid Greek Geometer; he created practical books on geometric forms and mathematics. His work formed the basis for later European studies in geometry
Created by: evelynguillen