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syllabus sec.2 -4


WHAT GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES INFLUENCED MESOPATMIA CIVILIZATION? the tigris and euphrastes rivers flooded at least once a year.
Fertile crescent curved shaped REGION and richness of its land that made scholars call it that.
silt a rich soil, black mud that was left behind after water flooded. helped farmers grow wheat and barley.
sumerians from a place called sumer. no one knows for sure where they came from; good soil attracted people to settle in sumer.
Disadvantages of living in Sumer 1. flooding of rivers was unpredictable. little or no rain fell so they had to rely on flooding. 2. sumer was small and there were no walls so villagers were defenseless.3. natural resources in sumer were limited.
Dealing with problems: Irrigation( making ditches that carried river water into farmers fields.) for defense they built walls with bricks.
Civilization sumer was the 1st civilization. 1 adv.cities 2 specialized workers 3 complex institutions 4 rec. keeping 5 adv technology
City-State each city-state had their own form of govt, like an independant country today.
Ziggurat place where preists appealed to god for the wll being of city- state.
what role did religion play in economic and poilitical growth? govt were contri=olled by preists. farmers thought that success was depended on priest. priests managed the irrigation systems and demanded a portion of farmers crops as taxes.
Dynasty series of rulers from the same family.
Cultural DIffusion processs of a new idea or a product spreading from one culture to another.
Polytheism belief in many gods
siumerian Technology they invented the wheel the sail and the plow they were first to use bronze.
Cuneiform first system of writing. were written on clay tablets.
akkadians spoke language closley related to arab and hebrew and conquered sumerians. guys name is Sargon
Empire brings together several ppl, nations, or previous independant states under control of one ruler.
Hammurabi babylonion emporer was known for his code of laws. fell to nomadic warriors
Hammurabis Code consisted of 282 laws dealing with everything that affected the communtiy. although code applied to evreyone the punishments difered if you were rich or poor or if you were a man or woman.
what geographic features helped egyption civilization? the Nile river.
NIle every year would flood at same time unlike in mesopatamia. it would flood in July. nile also left black mud for crops.
Cycle of harvest in egypt. flood plant harvest
Cataract riverboats could not pass this spot aka first cataract.
nile delta broad marshy triangular area formed by deposits of silt at mouth of river.
niles challanges even if it flooded at same time if it would flood a few feet lower it would reduce crops. and a few feet higher would destroy evrything.
Menes united all of egypt as a ymbol of untied kingdom he created a double crowns. he est. his cap city Memphis where the upper and lower met. created first dynasty.
pharoah was another name for a king and in their society king was a god. caused son to rise and nile to flow. and was his duty to promote truth and justice.
theocracy type of govt when a ruler is a divine figure (god)
"kah" kings spirit after death. they would rest the kings in something called a pyramid.
egyption natural resources stone granite, limestone
egyption gods rah=sun god,horus=god of light. goddess was Isis=mother and wife...egypt worshiped over 2000 gods. osiris= god of death
mummification embalming and drying the corpse to prevent from decaying.
heiroglyhics sacred carving
papyrus gift of nile..reeds that grew in marshy delta and would be a type of paper for them
hyksos chariot riders were asian nomads who took over egypt for a 70 yr period.
Indo-Europeans were semi nomadic ppl who vame from "steppes" a dry grassland that stretched n of caucasus.
migrations movements of ppl from region to another did not happen all at once but in waves over a long period of time.
Hittites indo- european speakers excelled in tech of war. superior chariots and iron weapons.
Aryans indo-european ppl lefta sacred literature vedas.
Brahmins priests, warriors, peasents, or traders. (Aryan)
minoans dominated trade over med. sea they loved onb crete produced finest pottery.
knossos minoans cap city.
King Minos who kept a half human half bull monster. he put it in a maze (minoan)
Phoenecians now aka labanon sidon and tyre known for purple dye.and byblos for papyrus. First ppl to have an alphabet which made it easier for ppl to be litterate.
Created by: sloman5