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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Fundamentals of Body structures and functions

QuestionAnswer
The digestive system is aka the GI tract which stands for gastrointestinal passageway aka the alimentary canal.
The physiology (function) of the digestive system (GI tract) inludes: 1. Taking food into the oral cavity (mouth) called ingestion (eating).
The GI tract is aka the gastrointestinal passageway or alimentary canal.
The physiology (function) of the digestive system (GI tract) include: 2. Wave-like muscular contraction that push the food along the GI passageway called peristaltic activity or peristalsis.
Gurgling and/or groaning sounds produced by peristalsis are abbreviated BS which stands for: bowel sounds aka borborygmos
Peristalsis (peristaltic activity) is the: wave-like muscular contractions that push food along the GI passageway.
The physiology (function) of the digestive system (GI tract) includes: 3. Breakdown of food by chemical and mechanical processes called DIGESTION
The GI tract is aka: gastrointestinal passageway or alimentary canal.
The physiology (function) of the digestive system (GI tract) includes: 4. Movement of digested (broken down) food into the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system system for distribution to the body cells called ABSORPTION
The physiology (function) of the digestive system (GI tract) includes: 5. Elimination (discharge) of substances that cannot be absorbed abbreviated BM which stands for bowel movement aka defecation.
The GI tract is a long continuous tube (vessel or duct) from the oral cavity (mouth) to the anus.
The journey of food through the GI tract takes an average of twelve (12) hours.
The GI tract is aka gastrointestinal passageway or alimentary canal.
The length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (vessel or duct) is approx. 30 feet.
The GI tract is a long continuous tube (vessel or duct) from the oral cavity (mouth) to the anus.
ORAL CAVITY (Mouth) Digestion begins in the oral cavity (mouth)
Digestion means breakdown of food by chemical and mechanical processes
The lingua maneuvers (positions) food between the: superior (upper) and inferior (lower) dentes
Lingua means tongue
Dentes means teeth
The labiae maneuver food between the superior (upper) and inferior (lower) dentes
Labies are lips
maneuver means position
The buccae maneuver (position) food between the superior and inferior dentes (teeth)
Buccae are cheeks
Superior and inferior means upper and lower
Between the ages of six (6) months and two (2) years there are twenty (20) temporary dentes called deciduous teeth
By age 13 there are 32 permanent (lasting) dentes (teeth)
The eight (8) anterior teeth (dentes) are called Incisors
Anterior means front
The physiology (function) of the eight (8) incisors is to cut food
The next four (4) teeth (dentes) are called canines aka cuspids
The physiology (function) of the four canines (cuspids) is to tear food
The next eight (8) teeth (dentes) are called premolars aka bicuspids
The physiology (function) of the eight (8) premolars (bicuspids) is to grind food.
The next twelve (12) teeth (dentes) are called molars aka tricuspids
The physiology (function) of the twelve (12) molars (tricuspids) is to grind food
The posterior (3rd) molars are aka wisdom teeth
Posterior means back
Molars are tricuspids
The anatomy (structure) of each dens (tooth) includes the 1. Visible portion of each dens (tooth) above the gingivae called the crown.
Gingivae are gums
Each crown is covered by the hardest substance in the body called enamel
A crown is the visible portion of each dens (tooth) above the gingivae (gums)
The anatomy (structure) of each dens (tooth) includes the 2. Portion of each dens (tooth) anchored in the bone socket of the maxilla (superior jaw) and mandible (inferior) jaw called the root.
The anatomy (structure) of each dens (tooth) includes the: 3. Connection between a crown and root called the cervix or neck.
Chemical digestion occurs (happens) in the oral cavity (mouth) from the secretion (production and discharge) of a mucus called saliva
Digestion means breakdown of food by chemical and mechanical processes.
An enzyme (chemical catalyst) found in saliva that digests (breaks down) starch is called amylase
A catalyst is: something that causes a reaction.
Saliva also contains an antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme
An enzyme is a chemical catalyst
Saliva is secreted (produced + discharged by the paired (two): 1. Parotid glands. 2. Sublingual glands. 3. Submandibular glands
Saliva is an oral mucus.
The oral roof is located in the superior (top) oral cavity (mouth)
The anterior (front) oral roof is called the hard palate
The posterior (back) oral roof is called the soft palate
Hanging from the posterior (back) border of the soft palate is a cone-shaped muscular structure called the uvula
The soft palate is the Posterior (back) oral roof
The physiology (function) of the uvula is to prevent food from entering the nasopharynx during deglutition which means swallowing.
Nasopharynx means nose and pharynx (throat)
The tongue (lingua) is a muscular structure covered on the superior surface with small projections called lingual papillae
Lingual papillae contain: sensory nerves and taste buds
Lingual papillae are small projections on the surface of the tongue (lingua).
The four (4) tastes are: 1. Sweet. 2. Salty. 3. Sour 4. Bitter.
The tongue (lingua) is connected to the floor of the oral cavity (mouth) by the lingual frenulum
The anterior (front) portion of the labiae are connected to the gingivae by the labial frenula
PATHWAY OF FOOD The pharynx is aka the throat
The pharynx (throat begins the process of deglutition aka swallowing
The vessel connecting the pharynx to the stomach is called the esophagus
The proximal esophagus passes through the space between the lungs called the mediastinum
Proximal means begining
The esophagus is the vessel (tube or duct) connecting the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
The distal esophagus passes through the diaphragm at the esophageal hiatus
Distal means end
The diaphragm is the primary muscle of ventilation aka breathing
The sphincter between the distal esophagus and stomach is called lower esophageal sphincter aka the cardiac sphinchter
A sphincter is a ring of muscles that opens and closes
The stomach is locate in the abdominal LUQ which stands for Left Upper Quadrant
The stomach is a bag of muscles designed to digest (churn, squash and squeeze) solid food into liquid food
The liquid food is called chyme
Chemical digestion (breakdown of food) occurs in the stomach due to the secretion (production and discharge) of 1. HCl which stands for hydrochloric acid. 2. Pepsin which begins the chemical digestion (break down) of protein (for growth and repair)
The stomach lining is protected from digestive enzymes by mucous membranes secreting a mucus layer
Enzymes are chemical catalysts
A catalyst is something that causes a reaction.
After two (2) to six (6) hours of digestion the stomach empties its contents into the duodenum through a ring of muscles called the pyloric sphincter
Digestion means breakdown of food by mechanical and chemical processes.
The first (1st) section of the small intestine is called the duodenum
The small intestine is aka the small bowel.
The second (2nd) part of the small intestine is called the jejunum
The third (3rd) part of the small intestine is called the ileum.
The majority (80%) of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine (small bowel)
Absorption means movement of digested (broken down) food into the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system for distribution to the body cells.
Nutrients absorbed by the small intestine include: The primary (1st) energy source utilized by the body cells called glucose aka dextrose
Gluucose is a type of sugar
Nutrients absorbed by the small intestine include: Lipids which are necessary for vitamin A, D, E +K absorption and cellular wall creation.
Lipids are fats
Nutrients absorbed by the small intestine include Amino acids for the creation of proteins which are necessary for growth and repair.
H2O aka water.
Nutrients absorbed by the small intestine include: Organic compounds required for normal growth and metabolism called vitamins.
Inorganic compounds required for normal growth and metabolism are called minerals
The ileum empties into the 1st section of the LARGE intestine called th cecum
The ileum is the 3rd section of the small intestine.
The ileum (3rd) section of the small bowel empties into the cecum (1st) section of the large bowel through a sphincter called the ileocecal valve (sphincter).
A sphincter is a ring of muscles that opens and closes.
A finger-like projection off the cecum is called the appendix
The cecum is the 1st section of the large intestine.
The appendix is located in the abdominal RLQ which stands for right lower quadrant.
The abdominal region where the appendix is located is called the right (R) inguinal region
Inguinal is iliac
The appendix is a finger-like projection off of the cecum which is the 1st section of the large intestine.
The 2nd section of the colon is called the ascending colon
Ascending means going up
The colon is aka the large intestine or large bowel.
The ascending colon turns (L) at the hepatic flexure
Hepatic means pertaining to the liver.
The 3rd section of the colon is called the transverse colon
Transverse meanss across
The colon is aka the large intestine or large bowel
The transverse colon turns inferiorly at the splenic flexure
Splenic means pertaining to the spleen
Inferiorly means downward
The 4th section of the colon is called the descending colon
Descending means going down
The 5th section of the colon is called sigmoid colon
The 6th section of the colon is called rectum
The physiology (function) of the rectum is to store the semisolid waste to be eliminated from the body called stool or feces.
When the rectum fills with feces (stool), stretch receptors (sensory cells) in the rectal septa (walls) send impulses (messages) to the brain to initiate (star) the act of emptying the rectum abbreviated BM which stands for bowel movement aka defecation (defecate)
Stool (feces) is eliminated from the body through a ring of muscles that opens and closes called the anal sphincter (anus)
Eliminated means discharged or expelled.
When the rectum fills with feces, stretch receptors in the walls send impulses to the brain to initiate the act of emptying the rectum abbreviated BM which stands for bowel movement aka defecation
Stool is eliminated from the body through a ring of muscles that open and close called the anal sphincter
The primary function of the large intestine is absorption of water
Absorption means movement of digested food in the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system for distribution to the body cells.
The liver is located in the abdominal right upper quadrant (RUQ).
Functions of the liver include 1. Removal of hemolyzed erythrocytes called bilirubin.
2. Removal of toxins called detoxification. Toxins removed by the liver are ammonia, alcohol and medications and drugs.
3. Storing excess sugar as a substance called glycogen. Glucose is the primary energy source for body cells.
4. Storing iron . Iron is necesssary for healthy hemoglobin.
5. Storing the 4 fat soluble vitamins called A, D, E and K
6. Production of heparin and prothrombin and thrombin which are necessary for coagulation.
7. Production of a substance to digest lipids (fats) called bile.
Bile is stored in a sac-shaped organ located behind the liver called the gall bladder.
Bile is produced by the liver.
Bile is transported from the liver to the gallbladder through a tube called common hepatic duct.
Bile is transported from the gall bladder to the duodenum through a vessel called the common bile duct.
The function of bile is to digest lipids.
The pancreas is located retrograstic which means behind the stomach
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
Pancreatic enzymes are carried from the pancreas to the duodenum through a vessel called the pancreatic duct.
The pancreas secretes hormones into the blood stream to control blood sugar (BS) called insulin and glucagon.
Created by: bterrelonge