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PATH: Vascular Dis.

Vascular Disease

where is atherosclerosis most commonly found large and medium muscular arteries
where does atherosclerosis form most often abdominal aorta
other common locations of atherosclerosis thoracic aorta, carotid, Circle of Wilis, lower extremities
what is contained within the plaques smooth muscle cells, lipids, Macrophages
Major risk factor for atherosclerosis High cholesterol, LDL, BP, with smoking or diabetes
Minor risk factors for atherosclerosis type A, age, male, inactivity, obesity, hereditary, high saturated fat, increased homocystein, CRP
what is the development of atherosclerosis fatty streak, Fibrofatty plaque, adv. fibrofatty plaque
when fatty streaks form in children and teens where do they most often present? thoracic aorta
what makes the cap of the fibrofatty plaque smooth muscle, collagen, macs and lymphocytes
what is the core of the plaque smooth muscle cells (foam), lipid filled macs, necrotic debris
what is a fatty streak an elevation of the intima
what effect does the fibrofatty plaque have? thins teh musculoelastic wall
what happens with adv. fibrofatty plaques foam cells disintegrate and contents are released to the extracellular lipid pool
what happens with adv. fibrofatty plaques with regards to core core is calcified with cholesterol crystals
what happens to the cap with adv. fibrofatty plaque necrosis and ulceration with thrombis
when do neovasculation occur? adv. fibrofatty plaque
when does the tunica media thin in adv fibrofatty plaques
when does musculoelastic wal thin in fibrofatty plaque stage
what are four complications of atherosclerosis vessel occlusion, narrowed lumen, embolism, aneurysm formation
what is the main reason occlusion will occur crack in the cap resulting in release of contents and propagation of plaque
what can happen when there is occlusion of the vessel MI, Stroke, Gangrene
what is the therapy for vessel occlusion by thrombis streptokinase and TPA
Narrowed lumen is due to? progressive plaque development in the lumen
what does a narrowed lumen do? causes chronic ishemia
what can a narrowed lumen result in? like occlusion by thrombis it can cause stroke, MI and Claudication
Emboli from atherosclerosis requires formation of a thrombus from an adv. fibrofatty plaque
how does atherosclerosis cause aneurysms destruction of the media (weakened wall)
where are atheroscleritic aneurysms most common abdomen
what suggest the etiology of viral atherosclerosis intimal mass cells (SM cells) found in infants correspond to adult plaque sites and are often monoclonal
how is LDL taken up receptor mediated, micropinocytes, macs
how does plaque cause damage to the endothelium platelets and macrophages adhere and release growth factors causing SM to proliferate in the intima thickening the cap
what else besides the plaque can damage the endothelium hemodynamic forces
Monckeberg Medial Sclerosis degenerative calcifications of the Large and Medium muscular artery vessel wall media layer
aneurysms are caused by localized dilations of the blood vessel from a weak media
where are atherosclerotic aneurysm found distal aorta and common iliacs
where are dissecting aneurysms found in the proximal aorta from an intimal tear 1 to 2 cm above the aortic valve
where is a syphilitic aneurysm found ascending aorta and arch
what is the shape of atherosclerotic aneurysm fusiform or saccular
what is the shape of the syphilitic aneurysm fusiform
where does the dissection take place inner 2/3 and outer 1/3 of the media
cystic medial necrosis refers to? dissecting aneurysm media is replaced by matchromatic material
what is the most common complication of dissecting aneurysm hemorrhage into the extravascular space
what is a common association with disecting aneurysms hypertension
Etiology of a dissectin aneurysm may be a defect in the collage or other media connective tissue
what syndrome is associated with dissecting aneurysms Marfans
what is the pain associated with dissecting aneurysms sharp pain that radiates to the back
what is the description associated with syphilitic aneurysm Tree bark appearance, medial scarring and intimal surface roughening
what are varicose veins dilated superficial veins
what are varicose veins in the rectum hemorrhoids
why do variocose veins dilate incompetent valves
what causes deep vein thrombosis stasis and or inflammation
when do you see DVT leg trauma and bed rest
what is lymphangitis inflammation of the lymphatics usually in an area of previous trauma
what causes lymphangitis GAS (B hemolytic)
where are hemangiomas found in the skin and occasionally internal organs
what are the two kinds of hemanioma neoplasm or hemartomas
a capillary hemangioma is called a birthmark
a cavernous hemangioma is called a port wine stain (large vascular channels)
where are angiosarcomas found in the skin and soft tissue rare malignant neoplasm of the endothelial cells
angiosarcomas of the liver are associated with? environmental carcinogens (arsenic and vinyl chloride)
Kaposi Sarcoma on skin or mucus membranes, GI and Lungs in AIDS patients
What is Kaposi Sarcoma associated with Herpes Simplex 8
Created by: jmuame03