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Egypt Section 3

Middle & New Kingdoms

What is the Middle Kingdom? The period in Egyptian history from about 2050 BC to 1750 BC marked by order and stability
What is the New Kingdom? The period from about 1550 BC to 1050 BC in Egyptian history when Egypt reached the height of power and glory
What are trade routes? A path followed by traders
Who was Queen Hatshepsut? An Egyptian queen who worked to increase Egyptian trade; monuments and temples were built during her reign
Who was Ramses the Great? An Egyptian pharaoh who fought the Hittites in the 1200s BC, defended Egypt from invaders, and strengthened Egypt's western frontier
How did the Old Kingdom end? The Old Kingdom declined when the nobles took power from the pharaohs. There was 160 years with no ruler, fighting, and famine.
How did the Middle Kingdom begin and end? Mentuhotep II reunited Egypt to begin the Middle Kingdom. This kingdom ended when the Hyksos invaded from Asia with chariots and better weapons. They ruled Egypt for 200 years.
How did the New Kingdom begin? The New Kingdom began when Ahmose drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. It lasted from 1550 BC to 1050 BC.
What changes occurred during the New Kingdom? The New Kingdom had tremendous wealth and power. The Egyptians conquered their neighbors so that no one could attack Egypt again like the Hyksos did. This made Egypt an empire and increased trade and military power.
What new trade partners and resources did Egypt gain during the New Kingdom? Sinai Peninsula- turquoise and copper; Kush & Nubia- gold, leopard skins, and precious stones; Other kingdoms sent expensive gifts to stay on Egypt's good side so they wouldn't attack
Name 3 unique things about Hatshepsut. (1) 1st woman pharaoh; (2) she dressed like a man so the people wouldn't question her rule as much, many objections to her authority; (3)She took over when her husband died and her step-son was too young to rule alone
Name 3 accomplishments of Hatshepsut's rule. (1) Sent trade expeditions to Punt(south) and Greece (north) (2) Used increased wealth from trade for the arts and building projects (3) She built MANY monuments, many about her were destroyed after her death
What made Ramses the Great a great military leader? He signed a peace treaty with their old enemy, the Hitites.
How long did Ramses rule AND how did his reign end? Ramses ruled for 67 years (one of the longest reigns for a pharaoh) and his reign ended when the Tehenu attacked from the west and the Sea People attacked from the northeast.
When and why did the New Kingdom come to an end? The New Kingdom ended when Egypt lost power after 50 years of fighting after Ramses death.
What did scribes do and who did they work for? Scribes were trained people who could write. They kept records for the government and temples.
What made scribes so important? Scribes were almost as important as priests and government officials, many of them were wealthy, and they didn't pay taxes.
What made artisans stand out in the New Kingdom? Artisans needed advanced skills and were admired. They worked for the government and temples and architects could become government officials.
What was important about soldiers in the New Kingdom? A full-time army was created after the Middle Kingdom so Egypt wouldn't be attacked by outsiders again. Soldiers were given land and could keep treasures from war. If they excelled they could be promoted to officers.
Describe the life of farmers and peasants in ancient Egypt. Farmers and peasants were near the bottom of the social pyramid but made up most of the population. They had to give their crops to the pharaoh as taxes and could be drafted by the pharaoh at any time to build pyramids, fight in wars, or mine for gold.
Describe the role of slaves in ancient Egypt. Slaves were at the bottom of the social pyramid, below farmers. Egypt did not have many slaves, but they did have some legal rights and could even earn their freedom.
Describe family life in ancient Egypt. Most families owned their own homes. Men married young and started families. Most women stayed in the home, but some did have other jobs. Women had legal rights to own property, make contracts, and divorce their husbands.
What did boys and girls do in ancient Egypt? Kids played games. Both boys and girls went to school. Boys would leave school at age 14 to work in the same job as their father.
Why were scribes so honored in Egyptian society? Scribes were honored because they were involved in religious procedures which were very important to the Egyptians and they portrayed the history of Egypt to later generations.