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Egypt Section 2

The Old Kingdom

What was the Old Kingdom? Period from about 2700 BC to 2200 BC in Egyptian history that began shortly after Egypt was unified
Who was Khufu? What is he known for? The most famous pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. Known for being cruel and building many monuments, including the Great Pyramid (his tomb)
Who are nobles? People from rich and powerful families
What is the afterlife? Life after death
What are mummies? Specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth for preservation
What does elite mean? People of wealth and power
What are pyramids? Huge stone tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that meet at a point on top
What is engineering? The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
Describe Egypt's first dynasties. Lasted 400 years. 1st Dynasty-Menes 2nd Dynasty- invaders took over 3rd Dynasty- Egyptians regained control, 2700 BC, beginning of the Old Kingdom
What did the Egyptians believe about their pharaohs? Believed they were gods sent to earth to take care of Egypt so they didn't question the pharaoh's rule. They were the people's link to the gods. They were wealthy and had an easy life, but they were blamed for bad things like floods and famines.
Who were Egypt's three biggest trading partners during the Old Kingdom and what did they trade? Syria- wood Punt- incense, myrrh (for medicine & perfume) Nubia- gold, stones, slaves, ivory
Name the 6 levels of Egypt's social structure in order from top to bottom. 1. Pharaoh 2. Priests & Nobles 3. Government Officials & Scribes 4. Craftspeople & Merchants 5. Farmers (80% of the population) 6. Slaves
Name 6 Egyptian gods and what they were the god of. Anubis- god of the dead Pta- creator of the world Isis- magic Ra- sun god Osiris- underworld Horus- sky god, god of pharaohs
Describe the Egyptian's religion. They were polytheistic and their main focus was the afterlife. They believed the afterlife was the ideal world.
What did the Egyptians call their spirit and why was embalming important to the Egyptians? Ka is a person's spirit or life force. The Egyptians believed that they needed to preserve the body so that the ka could recognize the body after death. The ka can't leave the burial site and it had all the same needs as a living person. The elite could afford to bury these objects and have the body mummified. Peasant families buried their dead in shallow graves a the edge of the desert.
What does the building of the pyramids tell us about Egyptian society? Egyptian society was capable of the complex organization and discipline required to build the pyramids.
Why were the pyramids significant to Egyptian culture? The pyramids were tombs for the pharaohs. They wanted them to be impressive because they believed the pharaoh controlled everyone's afterlife. The pharaoh's happy spirit meant happy afterlife for all Egyptians.