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Human Geo. Ch.8

AP Human Geography Chapter 8

the study of the interaction of geographical area and political power. It is the former study of territoriality and power political geography
what does political geography cover forms of government, borders, treaties, trading blocs, conflicts war
an independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory state
a community of people with a common culture or terriroty nation
state=__________________ country
Korea, Taiwan and the Poles are all ____________- states
Hong Kong, Macaw, Scotland, Wales are all ______________________ autonomous regions
states with very small land area microstate
the first cities in Mesopotamia were ________________________ city-states
sovereign state that comprises a _____________ and the surround countryside, built ________________ to define boundaries town; walls
examples of physical boundaries desert, mountain, water
3 types of cultural boundaries geometric religious, linguistic
tangible geographic area frontier
what do frontiers provide area of separation
what are becoming more attractive to states for agriculture and mining frontiers
a boundary drawn before it was well populated antecedent boundary
what kind of boundary are most antecedent boundaries physical
boundary drawn after it was well populated subsequent boundary
boundary drawn to accommodate religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences consequent boundary
boundary forced on existing cultural landscapes superimposed boundaries
a boundary that no longer functions but is marked by some landscape features relic boundary
advantage: easy defense and communications compact
advantage: increases access to natural resources such as water disadvantage: difficult to control prorupted state
advantage: another country is dependent on you perforated
disadvantage: difficult to communicate elongated
disadvantage: difficult to defend and communicate fragmented
bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is now part of a state but lies separated from it by territory of another state ex: Alaska exclave
piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a par ( landlocked within the country which surrounds them) ex: Vatican City enclave
isolation, at mercy of neighbors, need communication linkages, have formed alliances with other countries to lessen isolation Example: Switzerland landlocked state
who were most modern day boundaries drawn by Europe
territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent colony
effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territoyr colonialism
3 reasons for colonialism God, Gold, Glory
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society imperialism
what is European colonization of Africa and Asia considered imperialism
study of relationships between political power and space geopolitical theories
who proposed the organic theory and what was its main idea Ratzel and he said that states are living organisms and they need nourishment such as other states, people and resources, etc. to survive
Halford Mackinder, this was poised to dominate the world due to its landmass and massive resources heartland theory
where did Mackinder say the heartland was core of eurasia
who propsed the rimland theory and what was its main idea spykman- surrounding territories were more important because of access to sea ports
what did spykman say would happen if you had the heartland and rimland world domination
what geopolitical theory is correct none of them
government bestows power upon local territories rather than centrally controlling the entire country federal state
governments give little or no power to their local territories unitary state (nation-state)
each state is allotted a number of votes in a presidential election based on their ___________________ population
representation in the ____________________________ is also based on population house of representatives
# of representatives in the House + 2 Senators =_______________ # of electoral votes your state has
when are legislative boundaries redrawn every 10 years
manipulating districts to empower or discriminate against groups of people gerrymandering
spreads opposition supporters across many districts in the minority wasted vote
concentrates opposition supporters into few districts excess vote
links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries stacked vote
when did supranationalism begin post Cold War
tendency for a country to give up political power to a higher authority in order to accomplish a common objective supranationalism
what are the 2 different ways states cooperate ~political & military cooperations ~economic cooperation
what was the original name of the United Nations Former League of Nations which failed after WWI
when was the United Nations established and by whom 1945 by the Allies
how many countries were part of the UN in 1955 16 countries
how many countries were part of the UN in 1960 17 countries
how many countries were part of the UN between 1990-93 26 countries
what is the United Nations job peacekeepers
what does UNCLOS stand for United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources UNCLOS
how much territory do you own off the coast of your land 12 nm
how many miles of exclusive economic zone do you have 200 nm
when did the era of two superpowers take place cold war era
anti-communist (western europe) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
pro-communist (eastern europe) Warsaw Pact
______________________- is more important today in determining world powers economy
leading superpower is not a single state but and ______________________ of European states economic union
open borders, free trade between countries, common policies, larger trade market, common currency (EURO) European Union
process by which regions withing a state gain political power at the expense of central government devolution
the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries balkanization
an identification withe the state and acceptance of national goals, allegiance to ideals and way of life, emotion that provides identity and loyalty, acceptance of common rules, helps integrate diverse groups nationalism
study of symbols iconography
what are 3 unifying institutions schools(especially elementary), military, state religion
why are elementary schools an unifying institutuion children learn their history, goals, values, traditions, and the common language
what is the state religion of thailand buddhism
what is the state religion of nepal hinduism
what is the state religion of pakistan islam
what is the state religion of israel judaism
centripetal force: security from _______________ aggression and ____________ conflicts external; internal
centripetal force: __________________ opportunity of particpation equal
centripetal force: responsive to the people's ________________________ needs
centripetal force: joins areas together, roads and railroads transportation and communication
centripetal force: tariffs and embargos, legals barriers on immigration, limitations through passports and visas restrictions between conflicts
centrifugal force examples destablilizing forces, lack of communication or transportation, nationalism, organized religion
new states are created, political instability, mass migration, ethnocentrism effects of balkanization
actions by groups operating outside government rather than to those of official government agencies terrorism
who do terrorists target civilians
what did 9/11 start war on terror
what group led the 9/11 attacks Al-Qaeda
movements are expressions of regionalism: minority group self awareness and identification with a region rather than the state separatism
transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments devolutions
what are the stages in order of the states breaking up unity--> separatism--> devolution--> balkanization--> terrorism
Created by: dancer2024
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