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Psych development

Theoretical Perspectives in Motor Development

QuestionAnswer
Main theoretical perspectives -maturation -information processing - Ecological
Maturational perspective Motor development is an internal or innate process driven by a biological or genetic time clock (genetics & hereditary)
Normative descriptive period -described average performance in terms of quantitative scores on motor performance tests -focused on the products of development rather than on the developmental process
Biomechanical descriptive period the movement patterns children used in performing fundamental skills
Information Processing Perspective The brain acts like a computer taking in information, processing it, and outputting movement operations that occur as a result of some external or environmental input
What is maturation in terms of Newells model Individual - genetic
What is information processing in terms of Newells model Environment
What do theories provide? systematic way to look and explain developmental change
What did Arnold Gesell say? -Maturation is a process controlled by internal (genetic) factors rather than external (environmental) factors - Believed variability in one person to the next
Why were twins used to study maturation? Genetically identical – so they can study both genetics and environmental influence
Myrtle McGraw study purpose? to determine if a child’s normal progress in motor development could be altered by given conditions
Myrtle McGraw conclusion? Many characteristics develop at same rate in both twins, suggesting genetics factors trump environment factors
Ecological perspective -Stresses interaction between the individual, environment, and task that leads to movement -Takes into account many constraints that exist both inside and outside the body
How does the ecological perspective differ from the maturational and information processing perspectives? -Focuses on 3 factors, not just nervous system/genes (maturational) -Movement is controlled by various parts of the nervous system, not one “executive” in the brain making all decisions (information processing)
Ecological Perspective subcategory - dynamic systems approach - Perception- action approach
Dynamic systems approach Motor behavior is not hard-wired but instead “softly assembled”
rate limiter an individual constraint or system that holds back or slows the emergence of a motor skill
Perception-action approach -A close interrelationship exists between the perceptual system and the motor system -Implies that people assess environmental properties in relation to themselves, nor according to an objective standard
Affordance describes the function an environmental object provides to an individual (based both on their body and the on the object’s size, shape, texture, etc.)
Body scaling the process of changing the dimensions of the physical environment or object in relation to the structural constraints of a performer
Created by: rmart11