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C.10 Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Control center. Consists of brain and spinal cord. Central Nervous System
Subdivided into several smaller units. Consists of all the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord w/ sensory receptors, muscles, and glands. Peripheral Nervous System
Consists of sensory neurons that convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to brain and spinal cord. Afferent Peripheral System
Consists of motor neurons that convey information from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands. Efferent Peripheral System
Conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscle, causing us to react to changes in environment. Somatic Nervous System
Conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to smooth muscle tissue, to cardiac muscle tissue, and to glands. Autonomic Nervous System
Speeds up activity, involves energy expenditure, uses norepinephrine. Sypathetic division
speeds up body's vegetative activities(digestion), slows down other activites, uses acetylcholine. Parasympathetic division
Groupings of nerve cells Neurons
Bundle of nerve cells or fibers Nerve
Cells that perform support and protection Neuroglia/glial cells
Star-shaped cells that function in the blood-brain barrier to prevent toxic substances from entering brain Astrocytes
Provide support, connection, and produce the fatty myelin sheath on the neurons of the brain and spinal cord in the CNS Oligodendroglia
Involved in the phagocytosis of unwanted substances Microglia
Form the lining of the cavities in the brain and spinal cord Ependymal cells
Located only in the PNS and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath Schwann cells
Ribosomes attached to the ER, also called chromatophilic substance, where protein synthesis occurs Nissl bodies
Short and branched, like branches of trees Dendrites
long process/fiber that begins singly but may branch Axon
Many fine extensions that contact with dendrites of other neurons Axon terminals
Have several dendrites and one axon. Most neurons in brain and spinal cord are this type. Multipolar neurons
Single cells called Schwann cells aka ______ Neurolemmocytes
Gaps in the myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier
One dendrite and one axon Bipolar neurons
Have only one process extending from the cell body Unipolar neuron
1st nerve cell receiving impulse, unipolar Afferent neuron
2nd nerve cell receiving impulse, multipolar, transmit sensory impulse to appropriate part Association neuron
Final cell receiving impulse, multipolar, brings about the reaction to the stimulus Efferent neuron
The ionic and electrical charge around a nerve fiber that is not transmitting an impulse. Membrane/resting potential
Reversal of electrical charge Depolarization
Restoration of original charge to the nerve cell Repolarization
Areas where the terminal branches of an axon are anchored close to, but not touching, the ends of the dendrites of another neuron Synapses
Involuntary reaction to external stimuli Reflex
Pathway that results in a reflex Reflex arc
Groups of myelinated axons from many neurons supported by neuroglia White matter
Nerve cell bodies and dendrites, also bundles of unmyelinated axons and their neuroglia Gray matter
Gray matter on the surface of the brain Cortex
Nerve cell bodies grouped together outside the CNS Ganglia
Bundle of fibers inside the CNS Tract
Mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites inside the CNS, consisting of the gray matter Nucleus
Areas of gray matter in the spinal cord Horns
A series of connective tissue membranes Meninges
Outermost spinal meninx, "tough mother" Dura mater
Middle spinal meninx, "spider layer" Arachnoid layer
Innermost spinal meninx, "delicate mother" Pia mater
Sensory root, contains only sensory nerve fibers Posterior/dorsal root
Motor root, contains only motor nerves Anterior/ventral root
Created by: c_bereznay