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8 indust. Revo. Test


Agricultural Revolution changes in farming methods that allowed for great food production, more efficient use of land, and for more people to work in other industries
enclosure (enclosed fields) walling/fencing off fields for private farms
open field system common fields that everyone could work in and share the crops
General Enclosure Act of 1801 U.K. law that allowed large farms to take over smaller pieces of land forcing peasants off the land
Jethro Tull invented the seed drill
horse-hoeing husbandry growing crops in rows and hoeing them thoroughly
Robert Bakewell developed selective breeding of livestock
selective breeding controlling which traits were passed on through breeding
Joseph Foljambe invented the first successful iron plow
three-year crop rotation The first year, rye or winter wheat was planted. The second year, barley or oats were planted. The third year, the soil rested.
fallow leaving a field empty for a year to regenerate nutrients
Charles “Turnip” Townshend devised four-field crop rotation
four-field crop rotation wheat, clover, barley and turnips were planted in succeeding years; no land was left empty
fodder crops crops that animals can graze (clover, turnips)
reasons the Agricultural Revolution started in the U.K. better management of farmland, treated farming as a science, stable government, variety of foods could be raised/grown
kings of the U.K. during the start of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolution George I, George II, George III (king during the American Revolution)
types of foods commonly available in the U.K. beef, potatoes, artichokes, beans, breads, chicken, bacon, cheese, onions, pudding, shepherd’s pie
new foods that became available in the U.K. bananas, oranges, pineapples, ice cream, tea, and coffee
results of the Agricultural Revolution huge increase in population, people lived longer and produced more children, more workers were available to work in factories
Richard Arkwright father of the Industrial Revolution; created the factory system
cottage industry home-made business
textiles cloth made at home, then became the first products made in factories
Luddites people who lost their jobs to machines in factories, so they attacked the factories and smashed up the machines
rivers water used to power the first machines; factories had to be located along them at first
natural resources in the U.K. rivers, coal, iron
industrial espionage stealing ideas from a business
clocks used to regulate hours worked in factories
Samuel Slater memorized how machines worked and took ideas to America to open his own factories
steam engine invented by James Watt; used to power machines; factories no longer had to be built along rivers
cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney; used to pick seeds out of cotton
interchangeable parts invented by Eli Whitney: parts were identical and could make mass production and repair easier, faster, and cheaper
telegraph invented by Samuel F.B. Morse; used to send coded messages via wire
transatlantic cable invented by Cyrus Field; used to transmit messages under the Atlantic Ocean to Europe
spinning mule invented by Samuel Crompton; could do the work of 3,500 people to spin cotton fibers into yarn
locomotive invented by Richard Trevithick; first vehicle to run on rails; called the "puffing devil"
photography and cameras improved by Nicephore Niepce; called it heliography
sewing machine invented by Elias Howe and Isaac Singer; could produce textiles at home
movie projector/zoopraxiscope invented by Eadweard Muybridge; used it to prove that a horse's hooves all left the ground
telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell; used it to transmit voice messages via wire
phonograph invented by Thomas Edison, used to record and play back sound
light bulb invented by Thomas Edison; used to illuminate homes, businesses, and street lamps
electric motor invented by Nikola Tesla; used alternating current
diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel; cleaner burning engine than ones using gasoline
airplane invented by Orville and Wilbur Wright; first heavier than air flight
assembly line invented by Henry Ford; made mass production of automobiles possible
child labor practices children as young as five worked in factories and mines; unsafe conditions, poor food, long hours, no education, frequent punishments, diseases spread easily and quickly
workhouses last resort, men and women separated, few visitors, crowded, basic furniture/food, given clothing, could only leave for another job or to join the military
Adam Smith described the principles of capitalism; wrote the Wealth of Nations
Karl Marx described the principles of communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto
mining in the U.K. iron and coal were the two most important things mined
canary used to test the air in mines
fire damp air air exploded on contact with fire; miners needed special helmets that didn't give off heat
choke damp air air suffocated miners; used a canary to check the air
pit ponies pulled out carts of coal/iron from mines
dangers of mining cave ins, flooding, dangerous air, difficulty of getting things to the surface
importance of railroads travel longer distances faster; seaside resorts developed; goods were transported faster; newspapers/mail delivered daily; provided many jobs
importance of canals used for irrigation and transportation
population changes massive increase from 1750 to 1900; changed from rural to urban; life expectancy increased dramatically; infant mortality rates went down dramatically
machines in early factories spinning jenny, water frame, power loom, flying shuttle
social classes in capitalism, there would be people of all classes in communism, there would be no classes
Created by: daivi