Normal Size Small Size show me how
Ch 8 AP HuG Test
|the study of the interaction of geographical area and political process
|What is political geography the formal study?
|territoriality and power
|an independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory
|What are 3 areas of land that are complicated to determine if it can become a state?
|Korea, Taiwan, and the Poles
|What are some autonomous regions?
|Hong Kong and Macau(China); Scotland, N. Ireland, and Wales(UK)
|What is an example of a microstate?
|states with very small land areas
|a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside, built walls to define boundaries
|What is an example of a city-state?
|What is a geometric boundary?
|a straight line
|tangible geographic area; provides area of separation; uninhabited or inhabited by people seeking to live outside of organized society
|What are frontiers becoming more attractive to states for?
|agriculture and mining
|one drawn across an area before it was well populated; physical boundary
|What is an example of an antecedent boundary?
|Louisiana/ Mississippi border
|one drawn after it was well populated
|one drawn to accommodate religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences
|consequent (ethnographic) boundary
|What is an example of a consequent boundary?
|one forced on existing cultural landscapes
|What is an example of a superimposed boundary?
|N. and S. Korea
|a boundary that no longer functions but is marked by some landscape features
|What is an example of a relic boundary?
|Great Wall of China
|What is the advantage of a compact state?
|easy defense and communications
|What is an advantage of a prorupt or protruded state?
|increases access to natural resources such as water
|What is a disadvantage of a prorupt or protruded state?
|difficult to control the elongated portion
|What is an advantage of a perforated state?
|another country is dependent on you
|What is a disadvantage of a elongated state?
|difficult to communicate
|What is a disadvantage of a fragmented state?
|difficult to communicate and defend
|bounded(non-island) piece of territory that is part of a state but lies separated from it by territory of another state.
|What is an example of a exclave?
|Alaska, West Berlin(West Germany)
|piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is no a part (landlocked within the country which surrounds them)
|What is an example of a enclave?
|Lesotho, Vatican City
|isolation; at the mercy of neighbors; need communication linkages(highways, airports, rivers,etc.); have formed alliances with other countries to lessen isolation
|What is an example of a landlocked country?
|Most modern-day boundaries were drawn by whom?
|European Colonial Powers
|territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent
|effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory
|What are the reasons for colonialism?
|Promote Christianity, extract useful resources and to serve as captive for their products, and to establish relative power through the number of their colonies (God, Gold, Glory)
|control of territory already occupied and organized by and indigenous(native) society
|What is considered imperialism?
|European colonization of Africa and Asia
|What are the 3 geopolitical theories?
|the Heartland Theory, Rimland Theory, and Organic State
|Who founded the Heartland Theory?
|Sir Halford Mackinder
|What did the Heartland Theory propose?
|That whoever controls Eastern Europe controls the Heartland.
|Who founded the Rimland Theory?
|What did the Rimland Theory propose? Why?
|That Eurasia's rimland, the coastal areas, is the key to controlling the World Island; access to warm water ports
|Who founded the Organic State Theory?
|What did the Organic State Theory propose?
|That political entities continually seek nourishment in the form of gaining territories to survive in the same way that a living organism seeks nourishment from food to survive.
|What is the chronological order of the 3 theories?
|The Organic State Theory(1897), The Heartland Theory(1904), The Rimland Theory(1942)
|government bestows power upon local territories rather than centrally controlling the entire country
|Give an example of a Federal State.
|US, Canada, Mexico
|governments give little or no power to their local territories
|What is an example of a unitary state?
|Japan, China, Rwanda
|each state is allotted a number of votes in a Presidential election based on their population
|Representation in the what is also based on population?
|House of Representatives
|What are created to determine the districts that will be represented by a single representative?
|How many times are the legislative districts redrawn?
|every 10 years
|manipulating districts to empower or discriminate against groups of people
|spreads opposition supporters across many districts in the minority
|concentrates opposition supporters into few districts
|links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries
|tendency for a country to give up political power to a higher authority in order to accomplish a common objective
|What are the 4 supranationalistic organizations?
|United Nations, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, North American Free-Trade Agreement, and European Union
|What are the 2 different ways states cooperate?
|Political and military cooperation(government) and economic cooperation
|After WWI, what supranationalistic organization failed?
|League of Nations
|What was created after WWII?
|The United Nations
|defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources
|United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
|How many nautical miles does a territory own from the baseline?
|How far is the Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ)?
|200 nautical miles
|What 2 military alliances were formed during the Era of Two Superpowers (Cold War Era)?
|NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Warsaw Pact
|What is more important today in determining world powers
|Leading superpower is not a single state but a what of European states?
|economic union(The European Union)
|What are the elements of the European Union?
|open borders, free trade between countries(no tariff), common policies(environmental, foreign), larger trading market, and common currency(Euro)
|process by which regions within a state gain political power at the expense of central government (smaller government overpowers the central government)
|the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
|What are examples of Balkanization?
|Czechoslovakia breaking into Czech Republic(Czechia) and Slovakia; Yugoslavia breaks up into several countries
|What are the effects of Balkanization in Europe?
|New states are created, political instability, mass migration, and ethnocentrism
|actions by groups operating outside government rather than to those of official government agencies
|Who does terrorism target?
|What do states do that support a terrorist group?
|provides sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries, supplies weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists, and plans attacks using terrorists
|What states are believed to support terrorism?
|N. Korea, Iran, Sudan, and Syria
|an identification with the state and acceptance of national goals, allegiance to ideals and way to life, emotion that provides loyalty, acceptance of common rules, helps integrate diverse groups
|study of symbols
|What are some examples of iconography?
|national anthems, flags, flowers and animals, rituals and holiday, etc
|What are unifying institutions?
|Schools, Military, State Religion
|Why is Elementary school a definite unifying institution?
|children learn their history, goals, values, traditions, and the common language
|What religion does Thailand practice?
|What religion does Nepal practice?
|What religion does Pakistan practice?
|What religion does Israel practice?
|What does organization and administration do to a country?
|Secures it from external aggression and internal conflicts; distributes resources; equal opportunity of participation; responds to the people's needs
|What does good transportation and communication do for a country?
|Joins areas together; Roads and Railroads
|What are some restrictions between countries?
|Tariffs and Embargos(Trade ban with another country); legal barriers on immigration; limitations through passports and visas
|destabilizing forces; lack of communication or transportation
|If a minority group has a territorial identification and believes it has the right to self-determination
|What are 2 examples of organized religion?
|Hindus v. Muslims in Kashmir; Catholics v. Protestants in Northern Ireland
|these movements are expressions of regionalism: minority group self-awareness and identification with a region rather than the state; minority with the goal of total or partial secession
|transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments