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Ch 8 AP HuG Test

the study of the interaction of geographical area and political process Political Geography
What is political geography the formal study? territoriality and power
an independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory state (country)
What are 3 areas of land that are complicated to determine if it can become a state? Korea, Taiwan, and the Poles
What are some autonomous regions? Hong Kong and Macau(China); Scotland, N. Ireland, and Wales(UK)
What is an example of a microstate? Monaco
states with very small land areas Microstates
a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside, built walls to define boundaries city-states
What is an example of a city-state? Mesopotamia
What is a geometric boundary? a straight line
tangible geographic area; provides area of separation; uninhabited or inhabited by people seeking to live outside of organized society frontier
What are frontiers becoming more attractive to states for? agriculture and mining
one drawn across an area before it was well populated; physical boundary antecedent boundary
What is an example of an antecedent boundary? Louisiana/ Mississippi border
one drawn after it was well populated subsequent boundary
one drawn to accommodate religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences consequent (ethnographic) boundary
What is an example of a consequent boundary? Ireland/N. Ireland
one forced on existing cultural landscapes superimposed boundaries
What is an example of a superimposed boundary? N. and S. Korea
a boundary that no longer functions but is marked by some landscape features relic boundary
What is an example of a relic boundary? Great Wall of China
What is the advantage of a compact state? easy defense and communications
What is an advantage of a prorupt or protruded state? increases access to natural resources such as water
What is a disadvantage of a prorupt or protruded state? difficult to control the elongated portion
What is an advantage of a perforated state? another country is dependent on you
What is a disadvantage of a elongated state? difficult to communicate
What is a disadvantage of a fragmented state? difficult to communicate and defend
bounded(non-island) piece of territory that is part of a state but lies separated from it by territory of another state. Exclave
What is an example of a exclave? Alaska, West Berlin(West Germany)
piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is no a part (landlocked within the country which surrounds them) enclave
What is an example of a enclave? Lesotho, Vatican City
isolation; at the mercy of neighbors; need communication linkages(highways, airports, rivers,etc.); have formed alliances with other countries to lessen isolation landlocked country
What is an example of a landlocked country? Switzerland
Most modern-day boundaries were drawn by whom? European Colonial Powers
territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent colony
effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory colonialism
What are the reasons for colonialism? Promote Christianity, extract useful resources and to serve as captive for their products, and to establish relative power through the number of their colonies (God, Gold, Glory)
control of territory already occupied and organized by and indigenous(native) society imperialism
What is considered imperialism? European colonization of Africa and Asia
What are the 3 geopolitical theories? the Heartland Theory, Rimland Theory, and Organic State
Who founded the Heartland Theory? Sir Halford Mackinder
What did the Heartland Theory propose? That whoever controls Eastern Europe controls the Heartland.
Who founded the Rimland Theory? Nichols Spyman
What did the Rimland Theory propose? Why? That Eurasia's rimland, the coastal areas, is the key to controlling the World Island; access to warm water ports
Who founded the Organic State Theory? Friedrich Ratzel
What did the Organic State Theory propose? That political entities continually seek nourishment in the form of gaining territories to survive in the same way that a living organism seeks nourishment from food to survive.
What is the chronological order of the 3 theories? The Organic State Theory(1897), The Heartland Theory(1904), The Rimland Theory(1942)
government bestows power upon local territories rather than centrally controlling the entire country Federal States
Give an example of a Federal State. US, Canada, Mexico
governments give little or no power to their local territories unitary states
What is an example of a unitary state? Japan, China, Rwanda
each state is allotted a number of votes in a Presidential election based on their population electoral college
Representation in the what is also based on population? House of Representatives
What are created to determine the districts that will be represented by a single representative? legislative districts
How many times are the legislative districts redrawn? every 10 years
manipulating districts to empower or discriminate against groups of people gerrymandering
spreads opposition supporters across many districts in the minority wasted vote
concentrates opposition supporters into few districts excess vote
links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries stacked vote
tendency for a country to give up political power to a higher authority in order to accomplish a common objective supranationalism
What are the 4 supranationalistic organizations? United Nations, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, North American Free-Trade Agreement, and European Union
What are the 2 different ways states cooperate? Political and military cooperation(government) and economic cooperation
After WWI, what supranationalistic organization failed? League of Nations
What was created after WWII? The United Nations
defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
How many nautical miles does a territory own from the baseline? 12
How far is the Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ)? 200 nautical miles
What 2 military alliances were formed during the Era of Two Superpowers (Cold War Era)? NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Warsaw Pact
What is more important today in determining world powers Economy
Leading superpower is not a single state but a what of European states? economic union(The European Union)
What are the elements of the European Union? open borders, free trade between countries(no tariff), common policies(environmental, foreign), larger trading market, and common currency(Euro)
process by which regions within a state gain political power at the expense of central government (smaller government overpowers the central government) devolution
the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries balkanization
What are examples of Balkanization? Czechoslovakia breaking into Czech Republic(Czechia) and Slovakia; Yugoslavia breaks up into several countries
What are the effects of Balkanization in Europe? New states are created, political instability, mass migration, and ethnocentrism
actions by groups operating outside government rather than to those of official government agencies terrorism
Who does terrorism target? civilians
What do states do that support a terrorist group? provides sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries, supplies weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists, and plans attacks using terrorists
What states are believed to support terrorism? N. Korea, Iran, Sudan, and Syria
an identification with the state and acceptance of national goals, allegiance to ideals and way to life, emotion that provides loyalty, acceptance of common rules, helps integrate diverse groups nationalism
study of symbols iconography
What are some examples of iconography? national anthems, flags, flowers and animals, rituals and holiday, etc
What are unifying institutions? Schools, Military, State Religion
Why is Elementary school a definite unifying institution? children learn their history, goals, values, traditions, and the common language
What religion does Thailand practice? Buddhism
What religion does Nepal practice? Hinduism
What religion does Pakistan practice? Islam
What religion does Israel practice? Judaism
What does organization and administration do to a country? Secures it from external aggression and internal conflicts; distributes resources; equal opportunity of participation; responds to the people's needs
What does good transportation and communication do for a country? Joins areas together; Roads and Railroads
What are some restrictions between countries? Tariffs and Embargos(Trade ban with another country); legal barriers on immigration; limitations through passports and visas
destabilizing forces; lack of communication or transportation centrifugal forces
If a minority group has a territorial identification and believes it has the right to self-determination nationalism
What are 2 examples of organized religion? Hindus v. Muslims in Kashmir; Catholics v. Protestants in Northern Ireland
these movements are expressions of regionalism: minority group self-awareness and identification with a region rather than the state; minority with the goal of total or partial secession separatism
transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments devolution
Created by: colorguard101
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