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APWH Q2 Vocab Eval

TermDefinition
Silk Roads Land-based trade routes that linked Eurasia
Silk A luxury item (cloth) of great comfort and status. Was used as currency and as a means of accumulating wealth in Central Asia. Became a symbol of high status in China and the Byzantine Empire.
Black Death Name given to the massive epidemic that swept Eurasia in the 14th CE May have been the bubonic plague. One of the most devastating pandemics in human history, killed 75– 200 million people and peaking in Europe between 1346-1353
Indian Ocean Trading Network The world’s largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 CE, Stretched from southern China to Eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops.
Arabian Sea Water body east of the Arabian Peninsula and west of India Aka “Sea Roads” in the Indian OceanNetwork
Persian Gulf Water body between the Arabian peninsula and Persia NE of modern day Saudi Arabia and SW of Iran.
Red Sea Water body between NE Africa, Israel, and the Arabian Peninsula Today the Suez Canal links the Mediterranean Sea to this water body
Bay of Bengal Water body east of India – south of Bangladesh and west of SE Asia A part of the Indian Ocean Trade Network. Featured “sea roads”
South China Sea Water body east of China and Vietnam and west of the Philippines
Srivijaya A Malay kingdom that dominated the Straits of Malacca between 670 and 1025 CE; noted for its creation of a native/ Indian hybrid culture.
Borobudur The largest Buddhist monument ever built; Its a mountainous ten-level monument with an elaborate carving program; probably built in the 9th CE by the Sailendras rulers of central Java; it is an outstanding example of cultural exchange
Angkor Wat The largest religious structure in the premodern world. Located in modern Cambodia in the early 1100s CE Was built to express a Hindu understanding of the cosmos centered on a mythical Mt. Meru, the home of the gods in the Hindu tradition
Swahili civilization An East African civilization that emerged in the 8th century CE from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements.
Great Zimbabwe A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast Flourished between 1250-1350 CE
Sand Roads A term used to describe the routes of the trans-Sahara trade in Africa
Ghana, Mali, Songhai A series of important states that developed in western Africa in the period of 500 – 1600 CE in response to the economic opportunities of trans-Saharan trade (and especially control of gold production)
Trans-Saharan Slave Trade A fairly small-scale trade that developed in the 12th c C.E., exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants.
American web A term used to describe the network of trade that linked parts of the pre-Columbian Americas. Less intense and complete than the Afro-Eurasian trade networks, this web nonetheless provided a means of exchange for luxury goods and ideas over large areas.
Thorfinn Karlsfeni A well-born, wealthy merchant & seaman of Norweigan Viking background Led an unsuccessful expedition to establish a colony on the coast of what is now Newfoundland, Canada, in the early 11 c CE. “Viking voyager”
pochteca Professional merchants among the Aztecs
Sui Dynasty Ruling dynasty of China (581 – 618) that effectively reunited the country after several centuries of political fragmentation
Canal Man made water way connecting two other water bodies – key for transportation and trade
Yellow River 2nd longest river in China – second only to the Yangzi 3rd longest river in Asia. Considered the cradle of Chinese civilization. A major river in China – aka the “Huang He River.”
Yangzi River Longest river in China, Longest river in Asia, Third longest river in the world.
Tang Dynasty Ruling dynasty of China from 618 – 907; noted for its openness to foreign cultural influences
Song Dynasty Ruling dynasty of Chinese from 960 – 1279, noted for its rapid economic development
Hangzhou China’s capital during the Song dynasty, with a population of more than a million people
economic revolution A major economic quickening that took place in China under the Song dynasty Marked by rapid population growth, urbanization, economic specialization, the development of immense internal waterways, and increase in industrialized production and innovation
Foot binding Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls’ feet to keep them small, begun in the Tang dynasty; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of the female beauty.
Tribute system Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute (Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable)
Xiongnu Major nomadic confederacy that was established ca. 200 BCE and eventually reached from Manchuria to Central Asia.
Khitan/ Jurchen people A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China. Khitan (907 – 1125 CE) Jurchen - (1115 – 1234)
Silla Dynasty The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688 – 900)
hangul A phonetic alphabet developed in Korea in the 15th century.
chu nom A variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for an independent national literature; “southern script”
Shotoku Taishi Japanese statesman (572 – 622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; He is best known for the Seventeen Article Constitution, which lays out the principles of this reform
bushido The “way of the warrior,” Referring to the military virtues of the Japanese samurai, including bravery, loyalty, and an emphasis on death over surrender
Izumi Shikibu Japan’s most illustrious female poet of the third-wave era She provided a glimpse into the erotic life of elite, educated Japanese people
Chinese Buddhism Was China’s only large scale cultural borrowing BEFORE the 20th century. From India in the first and second centuries CE became popular in the 300 – 800 CE through a series of cultural accomodations. At first supported by the state.
Emperor Wendi Sui Emperor, Ruled 581 – 604, Patronized Buddhism.
Islam The religion founded by Muhammad along the Arabian Peninsula. It is a monotheistic religion that worships the god Allah.
Muslim The people who follow the religion of Islam
Quran It recorded the sacred scriptures of Islam. It was originally written in Arabic.
umma A term used to describe the Islamic society “The just and moral society of Islam was the umma, the community of all believers"
Pillars of Islam The set of five requirements for believers of Islam.
Hijra Hijra is the term used to describe the journey of Prophet Muhammad to the city of Medina.
Sharia A law that regulates every aspect of life It gradually evolved over the several centuries following the birth of Islam.
Jizya a special tax that allowed people to freely practice their own religion
Ulama an international elite that created a system of education that bound together an immense and diverse civilization
Umayyad caliphate A Muslim dynasty which was expanded vastly and extended from Western Europe to South Asia. The Umayyads rule provoked growing criticism and unrest.
Abbasid caliphate The muslim dynasty who ruled over the Arabians after the Umayyads.
Sufism The concept of the mystical dimension in the Islam. People who believed in Sufism often led self governed lives and tried to achieve spiritual balance.
al-Ghazali This is a person. He was an important philosopher. He originated from Persia. Al himself was both a legal scholar and a Sufi practitioner.
Sikhism Sikhism is a religion that was founded in the 16th century in India. The factors that made this religion unique was that it blended Hinduism(karma and rebirth) and Islam(one universal god).
Ibn Battuta A Moroccan visitor during the fourteenth century. He observed, that unlike many civilizations, women were actually placed up higher on the term of a patriarchy than men were- they were treated with more respect than usual. He was not pleased.
Timbuktu A major West African city that was the center of Islamic religious and intellectual life. It was a major spot for education making it an integral part of the Islamic world.
Mansa Musa The ruler or Mansa of the Kingdom of Mali who set out on a long journey to the holy city of Mecca. He had a large kingdom that stretched thousands of miles.
al-Andalus The place where Muslim encountered the Christian Europe in Spain. Eventually conquered by Arab and Berber forces in the early eighth century.
Madrassas Schools where people learned and analyzed the concepts of the Quran
House of Wisdom An academic center for the research of foreign learning “Poet and scholar with a passion for foreign learning, established the House of Wisdom”
Ibn Sina A writer of many sciences and philosophy involving both the Christian and Islamic ways. He was also a doctor who diagnosed diseases.
Christendom The worldwide body or society of Christians; the Christian world.
Nubian Christianity a center of African Christianity was being created during the 5th and 6th century in multiple Nubian kingdoms. The language also was important. Many converted to this faith. in 1500, the Nubian Christianity had "largely disappeared".
Jesus Sutras the Christian message written in texts are known as this. Refer to Christianity as very important as well as "good"
Ethiopian Christianity Was a Christian Island surrounded by Muslims. Was fascinated with Judaism and Jerusalem. Their rulers could "legitimate their position by tracing their ancestry back to Jesus". Attempted to create a "New Jerusalem" by linking 12 churches underground.
Byzantine Empire The Eastern Roman Empire by 1805 the empire shrunk and was being invaded constantly. The empire ended in 1453. Was in favor of the Greeks, prohibited praying to icons/pictures. They traded with many empires.
Constaninople The capital of the Byzantine empire; it was named after the ruler Constantine.
Mediterranean Sea A sea surrounded by Africa, Europe, and Asia. (2400 miles)
Black Sea a sea between Europe and Asia, bordered by Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Georgia, and the Russian Federation
Justinian the most powerful leader of the Byzantine Empire (527-565). The Western Empire was permanently lost despite Justinian's short-lived attempt to reconquer the Mediterranean Basin.
Caesaropapism Relationship in which the state and church were intimately tied together to make decisions/lead the empire.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity Had a persuasive influence on the Byzantine life. They made themselves original by not following all of what the other Christian religions. Constantine used this religion to unite his people.
Icons Byzantine emperors took the offensive against the use of icons in worship, arguing that they too easily became "idols" distracting believers from the adoration of God himself. Although some churches filled themselves with icons.
Prince Vladimir of Kiev The leader of the Byzantine Empire who promoted the idea that he would bring his people together by wanting/having them become an Eastern Orthodox religion. He also considered political and commercial issues to pick this religion.
Kievan Rus This emerged in the 9th century. Was led by Princess, and the peoples were all very diverse. Keiv decided to unite his people by having them all believe in Eastern Orthodoxy. Borrowed ideas from different Empires to create and design his empire.
Charlemagne the ruler of the Carolingian Empire. Created an beurocracy, standardized weights and measures, and began to act like an imperial ruler.
Holy Roman Empire This was Otto's realm (occurred while he ruled) Church authorities and nobles/warriors had political influence, and rulers encouraged the faith.
Roman Catholic Church Had one main leader with many under him. The hierarchy stayed important. Sometimes the leaders became greedy. Sometimes conversion occurred, other times they were able to change religion over time. Church was eventually able to appoint its own leaders.
Western Christendom The church became important because it offered them a different type of lifestyle. Christendom rose in West, while it fell with the east.
Cecilia penifader English peasant and unmarried woman, 1297, brighstock, free tenant that owed rent, family had large land holding and accumulated additional land from desperate peasants selling for cheap.
Crusades "Holy Wars" led by many different powerful people. It never left a lasting impact, and "crusading opened channels of trade, technology transfer, and intellectual exchange, but hardened cultural barriers". Crusades proved political and ideology popularity.
Pastoralism Way of life in which people depend on herding of domesticated animals for food.
Modun Great ruler of Xiongnu Empire (210 - 174) and created a centralized, hierarchical system.
Xiongnu People of the Mongolian steppe lands north of China who formed a large-scale nomadic empire.
Turks Turkish speakers from Central Asia, originally nomads.
Almoravid Empire Islamic religious movement in Africa, sparked by Ibn Yasin after returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Temujin/ Chinggis Khan Mongolian emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to Pacific.
The Mongol World War Term used to describe military campaigns, massive killings, and empire building done by Chinggis Khan.
Yuan Dynasty China Mongol dynasty that ruled China (1271 - 1368).
Khubilai Khan Grandson of Chinggis Khan ruling China from 1271-1294, as well as fifth Khagan of Mongol Empire
Hulegu Grandson of Chinggis Khan, later became the first subordinate khan (il-Khan) of Persia
Khutulun Mongol princess that was a female wrestler and great warrior, and no man defeated her; she influenced elite women
Kipchak Khanate/ Golden Horde Name given to Russia by the Mongols after they conquered it and incorporated it into their empire by the mid 12th century
Black Death Name later given to the massive pandemic that swept through Eurasia beginning in 1331
Pandemic A widespread disease or outbreak over a country or the world, which spread throughout especially in Eurasia
Catastrophic Involving or causing sudden great danger or suffering, occurring throughout the Black Plague
Disarray A state of disorganization or untidiness
Marco Polo Venetian trader who traveled through Mongol territory in the 13th century, as well as a famous westerner travelling Silk Road
Khan Mongol title for a sovereign or for a military ruler
Khanate Term to describe a political entity, ruled by a Khan; state or jurisdiction of a Khan
Mongol Empire Rose in the steppes of Mongolia in the 13th century that became the largest land based empire
Flemish Relating to Flanders, its people or their language.
Hispaniola Another word for Haiti. Here Columbus had received presents from the taino people.
Paleolithic persistence the continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite millennia of agricultural advance
igbo Nigeria's third largest group who are mostly Christian. They are located in the southeast part of Nigeria. This group has many conflicts with the Yoruba and at one point they tried to become a independent nation.
iroquois A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests
Timur Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire.
Fulbe West Africa's largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that lead to the creation of a number of new states.
Ming dynasty china Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Molngols.
European renaissance The era was marked by a revival of the art, architecture, thought, and culture of ancient Greece and Rome.
Zheng He (1371-1433) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
Ottoman Empire Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Seizure of Constantinople The Ottoman Empire seized Constantinople (capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 1453, marking the final demise of Christian Byzantium and allowed Ottoman rulers to see themselves as successors to the Roman Empire.
Safavid Empire Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state
Songhay Empire Portion of Mali after that kingdom collapsed around 1500; this empire controlled Timbuktu.
Timbuktu City in Songhay that was a major center of Islamic learning and commerce by the early 16th century.
Mughal Empire Indian empire that continued an ongoing encounter between Islamic and Hindu civilizations. Established in the early 16th century, creation of Islamized Turkic group which invaded India. Gave India rare period of political unity.
Malacca Flourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya.
Aztec Empire Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Motecuzoma I.
Inca Empire The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state along the entire spine of the Andes mountains. Inca had a more bureaucratic empire with divine ruler and local officials. Attempted to unify/assimilate conquered people.
Prominence The growing movement of importance for the Europeans after the 1500s where they recovered from the politic fragmentation of Europe.
Created by: 22denney