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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTE

Fundamentals of Body structures and functions

TermDefinition
Cardiovascular means pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport (carry) blood.
Blood vessels that transport (carry) oxygenated blood are called arteries
Oxygenated blood contains oxygen which is abbreviated O2
Arterioles are small arteries
Arteries are blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood.
Transport means carry
Venules are small veins
Veins are blood vessels that transport deoxygenated blood.
Capillaries are microscopic arteries and veins
The physiology (function) of capillaries is the exchange (trading) of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) called respiration
The diameter of every blood vessel is called the lumen
Diameter means distance across the center of a circle.
Vasodilation causes LBP which stands for low blood pressure aka hypotension.
Narrowing (decrease) in the lumen of the arteries is called vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction causes HBP which stands for high blood pressure aka hypertension (HTN)
Lumen means diameter of every blood vessel.
The cardiac organ is a muscular pump located in the chest space called the thoracic cavity
The cardiac organs is aka the heart
From a lateral (side) view, the heart (cardiac organ) is located between the sternum (breastbone) and thoracic (chest) vertebrae called the mediastinum
From an anterior view, the cardiac organ (heart) is located between the pulmonary organs called the lungs.
Anterior means front
Pericardium means pertaining to the membranous sac around (surrounding) the heart.
Membranous means lining
Epicardium means pertaining to the outer layer of the heart.
The cardiac heart organ is a muscular pump
Myocardium means pertaining to the muscle layer of the heart.
The cardiac (heart) organ is a muscular pump
Endocardium means pertaining to the inner layer of the heart.
The largest veins that transport (carry) deoxygenated blood (CO2) from the body's upper and lower portions to the heart are called superior and inferior venae cavae
CO2 stands for carbon dioxide
The venae cavae deliver deoxyginated blood (CO2) to the superior (upper cardiac (heart) chamber (enclosed space) called the right atrium
The right atrium contracts (pumps) sending deoxygenated blood (CO2) through a one way structure called the tricuspid valve
Cusp means flap
The right atrium is the superior (upper) right cardiac chamber
The physiology of the tricuspid valve is to prevent (stop) valvular backflow called regurgitation aka valvular reflux.
Physiology means function
Valvular regurgitation (reflux) causes a sound called a murmur or bruit
A murmur (bruit) can be heard during auscultation which means listening with a stethoscope.
Strands of tendon that anchor the tricuspid valve cusps preventing prolapse are called chordae tendinae
Prolapse means displacement
Deoxygenated blood (CO2) fills the inferior right cardiac (heart) chamber called the right ventricle
Inferior means lower
Chamber means enclosed space
The right ventricle contracts (pumps) sending deoxygenated blood (CO2) through a one way structure called the pulmonary semilunar valve
The right ventricle is inferior (lower) right cardiac chamber.
Pulmonary means lungs
The physiology (function) of the pulmonary semilunar valve is to prevent (stop) valvular backflow called: valvular regurgitation aka valvular reflux.
A valve is a one way structure
Valvular regurgitation (reflux) causes a sound called a murmur or bruit.
A murmur (bruit) can be heard during auscultation which means listening with a stethoscope.
Deoxygenated blood (CO2) enters a large pulmonary blood vessel called the pulmonary trunk
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport blood
The pulmonary trunk bifurcates into blood vessels called pulmonary arteries
Bifurcates means splits into two (2)
Pulmonary means lungs
The physiology (function) of the lungs is respiration which means exchange of gases
The gases exchanged are oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Oxygenated blood (O2) returns from the lungs to the heart through blood vessels called pulmonary veins
O2 stands for oxygen
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport blood.
Pulmonary veins deliver the oxygenated blood (O2) to the superior (upper) left cardiac (heart) chamber called the left atrium
Chamber means enclosed space
The left atrium contract (pumps) sending oxygenated blood (O2) through a one structure called the bicuspid valve aka the mitral valve.
The left atrium is the superior (upper) left cardiac chamber.
The physiology (function) of the bicuspid valve is to prevent backflow called regurgitation aka reflux.
The bicuspid valve is aka the mitral valve.
Valvular regurgitation (reflux) causes a sound called a murmur or bruit.
A murmur (bruit) can be heard during auscultation which means listening with a stethoscope.
Vertebrae are aka the spinal column or back bones
Strands of tendon that anchor the bicuspid valve cusps (flaps) preventing prolapse are called chordae tendineae
Prolapse means displacement
Cusps are flaps
Oxygenated blood (O2) fills the inferior left cardiac chamber called the left ventricle
Inferior means lower
Chamber means enclosed space
The left ventricle contracts sending oxygenated blood through a one way structure called the aortic semilunar valve
Cntract means pumps
The left ventricle is the inferior (lower) left cardiac chamber
The physiology (function) of the aortic semilunar valve is to (prevent) stop valvular backflow called valvular regurgitation aka valvular reflux.
A valve is a one way structure.
The aortic semilunar valve allows oxygenated blood (O2) to enter the largest artery called the aorta
A valve is a one way structure
O2 stands for oxygen
The first (1st) part of the aorta goes upward through the chest cavity called the ascending thoracic aorta.
The aorta is the largest artery
Cavity means space
The second (2nd) part of the aorta curves at the apex (like a candy cane) called the aortic arch
Apex means top
The third (3rd) part of the aorta goes downward through the chest cavity called the descending thoracic aorta
The fourth (4th) part of the aorta located between the thorax and the pelvis is called the abdominal aorta
Thorax means chest
Pelvis means hips
The aorta branches into arteries, arterioles and capillaries that will distribute the oxygenated blood (O2) to all cells of the body
Distribution means circulate or deliver
The wall between the atria is called the interatrial septum
The atria are the superior chambers (enclosed spaces) of the heart
Superior means upper
The wall between the ventricles are the inferior chambers (enclosed spaces) of the heart
Inferior means lower
Major arteries: Vessels that branch off the aortic arch and deliver oxygenated blood (O2) to the cerebrum (brain) are called carotid arteries
Vessels that deliver oxygenated blood (O2) to the myocardium are called coronary arteries
The myocardium is the muscle layer of the heart
Vessels that deliver oxygenated blood 9O2) to the arm sand superior thorax are called subclavian arteries
Superior means upper
Thorax means chest
Vessels that deliver oxygenated blood (O20 to the intestines are called the mesenteric arteries
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport blood
Transport means carry
Vessels that deliver oxygenated blood (O2) to the diaphragm are called phrenic arteries
The diaphragm is the primary muscle of ventilation aka breathing
The abdominal aorta bifurcates into vessels that deliver oxygenated blood (O2) to the pelvis and superior (upper) legs (thighs called the right and left iliac arteries
Bifurcation means splits into two (2).
Vessels that deliver oxygenated blood to the inferior legs are called femoral arteries
blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport blood
Inferior means lower
Major veins: Vessels that return deoxygenated blood (CO2) from the head to the superior vena cava are called jugular veins
Vessels that return deoxygenated blood (Co2) from the inferior legs are called saphenous veins
Alternate blood vessels that can be used for a CABG are called mesentery arteries
Alternate means substitute
CABG stands for coronary artery bypass graft
Vessels that return deoxygenated blood (CO2) from the arms and neck are called subclavian veins
The vessel that is the confluence of the mesenteric (intestinal) and splenic (spleen) veins and gastric (stomach) veins and cystic (gallbladder) veins is called the hepatic portal vein
Confluence means merging
Vessels commonly used to perform phlebotomy are called medial cubital veins
Phlebotomy is aka venipuncture
Median cubital veins are aka antecubital veins.
Deoxygenated blood (CO2) returns from capillaries through venules then through veins and then to the larger veins called superior (upper) vena cava and inferior (lower) vena cava.
Capillaries are microscopic arteries and veins.
Other terms: A device that respirates the blood when the heart is stopped for surgical procedures is abbreviated CBM which stands for cardiopulmonary bypass machine aka heart-lung bypass machine
A blood test to detect inflammation and can indicate cardiac (heart) pathology is abbreviated CRP which stands for C-reactive protein
Indicate means show
Pathology means disease
Enzymes (chemical catalysts) found in a blood sample that indicate 9show) damaged muscle tissue include: CPK aka CK LDH aka LD
Enzymes (chemical catalysts) found in a blood sample that indicate (show) an AMI include 1. Troponin. 2. CPK-MB aka cardiac isoenzymes or "isos"
AMI stands for acute myocardial infarction
Blood: A woman's average blood volume is five (5) liters (L).
A man's average blood volume is six (6) liters (L)
Volume means the amount of space a liquid occupies (fills).
Blood physiology includes transporting (carrying) Enzymes which are chemical catalysts.
Physiology means function
Blood physiology function) includes 1. transporting (carrying) 2. Hormones secreted from the endocrine glands. ) 2.
Secreted means produced and discharged (released)
Blood physiology (function) includes transporting carrying: 1. Carbon dioxide (C2) to the lungs. 2. Nitrogenous (N) waste to the kidneys. 2.
Blood physiology (function) includes transporting Leukocytes (WBCs) and antibodies to defend against disease creators called pathogens
Antibodies are immune proteins
Blood physiology (function) includes transporting excess body heat to the blood vessels located in the skin.
Most body heat is released when perspiration is changed to a vapor called evaporation
Perspiration is aka sweat
Vapor is a mist
Blood physiology includes regulating (controlling) blood pH by transporting carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3) buffer.
pH is a measurement of acidity and alkalinity.
Normal blood pH is 7.l35 - 7.45
Blood PH < (less than) 7.35 is called acidosis (acidotic)
Blood pH > (greater than) 7.45 is called alkalosis (alkalotic)
Nourisment: The process of providing or obtaining nutrients is called nutrition
Nutrients are substances necessary for the body to maintain (continue) health and life
Nutrients transported (carried) by the blood include: Vitamins and minerals which are necessary for normal growth and metabolism.
Metabolism is the rate (speed) at which the body utilizes (uses) energy
Nutrients transported (carried) by the blood include Carbohydrates (CHO) which are utilized for energy.
Utilized means used
Nutrients transported by the blood include Proteins which are necessary for growth and repair
Nutrients transported (carried) by the blood include Fats which are necessary for vitamin A, D, E + K absorption and cellular wall creation.
Blood components: Components are parts
Blood drawn (removed) from the body is abbreviated WB which stands for whole blood
Components of whole blood (WB) include Erythrocytes aka RBCs which stands for red blood cells
Components of whole blood (WB) include Leukocytes aka WBCs which stands for white blood cells
Erythrocytes: The physiology (function) of erythrocytes is the exchange of oxygen (O2) called respiration.
Erythrocytes are aka red blood cells (RBCs)
To maximize respiration, erythrocytes (RBCs should appear as biconcave disks which means the edges are thicker than the center Werther's Original Hard Candies).
Respiration is the exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Erythrocytes (RBCs) do not contain a genetic nucleus (DNA) so they do not have the ability to replicate
Replicate means duplicate or copy
Erythropoiesis occurs (happens) in the red bone marrow aka myeloid tissue.
Erythropoietin is a hormone secreted by the kidneys.
Erythropoietin is necessary for erythrocyte (RBC) formation.
Secreted means produced and discharged (released).
Erythrocytosis means abnormal condition of excessive red cells
A normal erythrocyte (RBC) count is 2-6 million.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) live for approximately 120 days.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) necrose (die) at a rate of 2 million per second.
Necrotic erythrocytes (RBCs) hemolyze which means break up (fragment).
Necrotic means dead
Hemolyzed (broken up) erythrocytes (RBCs) are called bilirubin
Hyperbilirubinemia means blood condition of excessive bilirubin.
Bilirubin is necrotic (dead) hemolyzed (fragmented) erythrocytes (RBCs).
Hyperbilirubinemia causes a yellow discoloration to the skin and/or sclerae called jaundice or icterus (icteric - adj).
Sclerae are the whites of the eyes.
Hyperbilirubinemia can be caused by pathology of the liver or gallbladder or the pancreas.
Pathology means disease
The blood protein found inside erythrocytes and necessary for erythrocytes to transport (carry) oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is abbreviated Hgb which stands for hemoglobin.
Erythrocytes are aka red blood cells.
A normal hemoglobin (Hgb) range is 12-17 g/dL
Hemoglobin (Hgb) is a blood protein found inside erythrocytes (RBCs) and necessary for erythrocytes (RBCs) to transport (carry) oxygen (O2) and CO2)
The element necessary for healthy hemoglobin (Hgb) is abbreviated Fe which stands for iron.
Foods rich in iron (Fe) include red meat and dark green leafy vegetables.
Hematocrit (Hct or crit) represents the percentage of blood occupied by erythrocytes abbreviated PCV which sands for packed cell volume.
H+H stands for hemoglobin and hematocrit.
MCH stands for mean cell hemoglobin
MCHC stands for mean cell hemoglobin concentration.
Erythrocytopenia means a deficiency of red cells
Erythrocytopenia and/or deficiency of hemoglobin (Hgb) is called anemia.
The physiology (function) of thrombocytes is coagulation or clotting.
Thrombocytes are clot cells aka platelets
A normal thrombocyte count is 150-300,000
Thrombocytes (platelets are produced at a rate of 200 billion a day
Thrombocytopenia means a deficiency of clot cells or platelets
Thrombocytosis means abnormal condition of excessive clot cells
Thrombocytopenia mans formation of clot cells
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow aka myeloid tissue.
Embolus (emboli) are travelling clots.
Thrombolysis and thrombolytic mean break up or destruction of a clot
Anticoagulant mans against coagulation (clotting)
Coagulation is the process by which liquid blood changes into a semisolid mass (collection) called a blood clot.
Blood tests to determine the ability to coagulate (clot) include: 1. INR (international normalization ratio). 2. Prothrombin time (PT) 3. Bleeding time (BT)
Coagulation panel (profile) refers to a group of tests and consists of: a. INR b. PT or prothrombin time c. BT or bleeding time. d. Platelet count aka (thrombocyte count).
A genetic (hereditary) coagulopathy caused by deficiency of a clotting factor or clotting factors is called hemophilia
Coagulopathy means clotting disease.
A life threatening loss of blood volume is called exsanguination
The type of shock caused by exsanguination is called hypovolemic shock
The physiology (function) of leukocytes is to defend the body against disease creators called pathogens.
Leukocytes are aka white blood cells (WBCs).
A normal leukocyte (WBC) count is 4,000-11,000
Leukocytes (WBCs) increase in number to defend the body against disease creators called pathogens.
Leukocytosis means abnormal condition of excessive white blood cells
A malignancy (cancer) of the red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) or lymphatic system causing extreme leukocytosis is called leukemia
Leukocytopenia means deficiency of white blood cells
Leukocytopenia is associated with AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
A blood test to count the five (5) different types of leukocytes is: white blood cell (WBC) differential.
A mnemonic to remember the five (5) different types of leukocytes is monkeys never eat little bananas
The five (5) different types of leukocytes include: Monocytes that phagocytize which means ingest (swallow) disease creators called pathogens.
The five (5) different types of leukocytes include; Neutrophils that phagocytize which means they ingest disease creators called pathogens.
The five (5) different types of leukocytes include: Eosinophils that increase in number during an allergic reaction.
The five different types of leukocytes include; Lymphocytes that produce immune protein called antibodies.
Antibodies are necessary to defeat infections caused by viruses.
The five (5) different types of leukocytes include: Basophils that release a. Histamine which initiates (starts) the inflammatory response. b. Heparin which decreases coagulation (clotting) and increases blood flow.
Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood.
Plasma comprises (contains) approximately 55% of blood volume.
Blood cells and other elements comprise approximately 45% of blood volume.
Plasma is composed of: a. Nutrients. b. Electrolytes (salts) c. Hormones. d. Gases (O2 and CO2) e. Nitrogenous (N) wastes. f. Plasma proteins.
A plasma protein necessary for normal fluid balance is called albumin.
Two (2) plasma proteins necessary for normal coagulation are called fibrinogen and prothrombin (PT).
Production of prothrombin (PT) requires adequate amounts of Vitamin K
Foods rich in Vitamin K include green leafy vegetables.
Plasma without fibrinogen and prothrombin is called serum
Plasmapheresis means separation of plasma from erythrocytes (RBCs) and thrombocytes (platelets) and leukocytes (WBCs)
Plasma can be preserved for future transfusions by freezing abbreviated FFP which stands for fresh frozen plasma.
Transfusion means transfer
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with clotting factors is called cryoprecipitate
Cryoprecipitate is administered to treat the genetic hereditary coagulopathy (clotting disease) called hemophilia.
Created by: bterrelonge