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ch. 8 med term

ch8 med term

QuestionAnswer
hypothalamus a part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions, such as body tempurtaure,slep and appetite
hyperkinesis excessive muscluar movement and physical activity, hyperactivity
hyperesthesia excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli;such as pain or touch
herpes zoster an acute infection casued by the same virus that casues chickenox, characterized by painful vesicaular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body
hemiparsels slight or parital paralysis of one half of the body
gyrus one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum
neurologist a physicain who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neuroglia the supporting tissue of the nervous system
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neuralgia servere, sharp,spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
nerve block the injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve
nerve a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brian and spinal cord to the other parts of the body
naracolepsy uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
myelin sheath a protective sheath of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
motor nerves transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS
midbrain the uppermost part of the brain stem
microglia small neuroglial cells found in the interstital tissue of the nervous system that engulf celluar debris, wastes products, and pathogens within the nerve tissue
meninges the three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
neurology the study of the nervous system and its disorders
neuron a nerve cell
neurosurgeon ap hysicain who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
neurosugery any suergery involving the nervos system
neurotrasmitter a chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses
occlusion blockage
oligodendrocyte a type of neuroglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system
palliative soothing
paraplegia paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries
parasympathetic nerves nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glanduluar secreations and relaxing sphincters
parasympathomimetic copying or producing the same effects as those of the parasympathetic nerves
paresthesia a sensation of numbness or tingling
peripheral nervous system the part of the nervous system oustide the CNS, consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
shunt a tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another
shingles an acute infection casued by the same virus that casues chickenox, characterized by painful vesicaular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve
sensory nerves transmitters of nerve impluses toward the CNS
sensory pertaining to sensation
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve
rhizotomy the surgical resection of a spinal nerbe root
receptor a sensory nerve ending
radiculotomy the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord at the level of teh cervical vertebra
pons the part of the brain located between the medula oblongata and the midbrain
plexus a network of interwoven nerves
pineal gland a small cone-shaped structre thought to be invloved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin
pineal body a small cone-shaped structre thought to be invloved in regulating the body's biological clock and that produces melatonin
pia meter the innermost of the three membrane surrounding the brian and spinal cord
phagocytosis the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris
white matter the part of the nervous system consisting of axons covered with myelin sheath, givinga white apperance
whiplash an injury to the cervical vertebra and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth jerking movment of the head and neck
ventricle, brain a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
tonic-clonic seizure a seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction ot tension followed by relaxation,creating a "jerking" movment of the body
thrombosis an abnomral condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
thalamus the part of thebrain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain
syncope fainting
synapse the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nevre impulses are transmitted
symapathomimetic copying or producing the smae effects as those of the sympatheic nerves
sympatheic nerves nerves of the ANS that regulate essential invlountary body functions such as increasing the heart rate, conscrting blood vessels and raising blood pressure
sulcus a depression or shallow groove on the surface of an organ
subdural space the space located just under the arachoid membrane that contians CSF
stupor a state of lethargy
stimulus any agent or factor capable of intiating a nerve impulse
somatic nervous system the part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
Created by: Courtneey