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med term ch8

absence seizure a small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consicous lasting only a few seconds
acetylocholine a chemical substacne in the body tissues that faciliates the transmissions of nreve impulses from one nerve to another
afferent nerves transmitters of nerve impluses toward the CNS; also known as nerevs
agnosia loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli (sucah as sight,sound,or touch) even through the sensory organs themseleves are funtioining properly
agraphia the inability to convert one's thought into writing
aura the sensation an indivdual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure
ataxia without muscular coordination
astrocytoma a tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes
astrocyte a star-shaped neurogial cell found in the CNS
arachnoid membrane the weblike middle layer of the three membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord
apraxia inability to perform coordinated movements or use pbjects properly
aphasia inability to communicate through speech,writing, or signs, because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain
aneurysm a localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; usually casued by hypertension or arthrosclerosis
anesthesia without feeling or sensation
analgesia without sensitivity to pain
alexia the inability to understand written words
cerebral concussion a brief interruption of brain function, usally with the loss of consicous lasting for a few seconds
cerebellum the part of the brian responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem
cephalalgia pain in the head; headache
central nervous system one of the two main divisons of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
cell body the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm
causalgia a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve,sometimes accompained by erythema of the skin
cauda equina the lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebra
burr hole a hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill
brudzinski's sign a positive sign of meningitis, in which there is an involuntary flexion of the arm, hip,and knee when the patients neck is passivley flexed
brain stem the stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord
bradykinesia abnormally slow movement
blood-brain barrier a protective charactersitic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the bloodstream into the brain tissue or CSF
axon the part of the nerve cell that transports nereve impluses away from the nerve cell body
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body, such as activites involving the heart muscles
demyelination destruction or removal of the myelin shealth that covers a nerve or nerve fiber
dementia a progressive irreversible mental disorder in which the person has deteriorating memory,judgement and ability to the think
deflict any deficieny or variation of the normal, as in a weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular accident
cranitomy a surgical incision into the cranium or skull
convolution one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrume; also called a gyrus
contracture a permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormallyflexed position, with resultant physical deformity
comatose pertains to being in a coma
coma a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
cheyne-stokes respiration an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apena followed by deep rapid breathing
cerebrum the largest and uppermost part of the brain, it controls concisousness,memory,sensations,emotions, and voluntary movements
cerebrospinal fluid the fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact
cerebral cortex the thin outer layer of nerve tissue; known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum
cerebral contusion small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "brusie" of the brain tissue occuring when the brain strikes the inner skull
gray matter the part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath; giving a gray apperance
ganglion a knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord
gait the style of walking
fontanelle or fontanel a space covered by tough membrane between the bones of an infants cranium; called a "soft spot"
fissure a deep groove on the surface of an organ
epilepsy a neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden brief attacks of seizures
epidural space the space immediately ouside the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissuesd
embolism an abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel
efferent nerves transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS; also known as motor nerves
dysphasia diffuclt speech
dyslexia a condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read
dura mater the outermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord
diplopia double vision; also called ambiopia
diencephalon the part of the brian located between the cerebrum and the midbrain
dendrite a projection that extends from the nerve cell body
medulla oblongata one of the three parts of the brain stem
longitudinal fissure a deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides the cerebrum into the right and left hemisphere
lethargy a state of being sluggish
kinesiology the study of muscle movement
kernig's sign a diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the persons inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexed upon the adbomen and the person is sitting or lying down
interneurons connecting nerouns that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
echoencephalography ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain
electroencephalography (EEG) measurment of electrical activity produced by the brain and recoreded through electrodes placed on the scalp
lumbar puncture invloves the insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generally between the 3 and 4 lumbar vertebrae below the level of the spinal cord under strict aseptic terchnique
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony strcutures without the use of radiation
myelography is the indroduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachoid space through a lumbar puncture in order to visualize the spianl cord and vertebral canal through x-ray examination
neurectomy is a neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision or cranial or peripheral nereves
pneumoencephalography is used to radiographically visualize one of the ventricles or fluid-occupying spaces in the CNS
polysomnogram (PSG) is a sleep study or sleep test that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep
postion emission tomography (PET scan) produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected
romberg test is used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance
sterotaxic neurosurgery is performed on a precise location of an area within the brian that controls specific function(s) and may involve destrcution of brain tissue with various agents such as heat,cold and sclerosing or corrosive fluids
sympathectomy is a surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway for the purpose of relieving chronic pain
tractotmy involves a craniotomy, through which the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgicall divided in an attempt to relieve pain
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that suppiles electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site
ventricul/o ventricle of the heart or brain
ton/o tension, tone
thec/o sheath
-sthenia strength
-praxia perform
-plegia paralysis
-phasia speech
-paresis partial paralysis
neur/o nerve
narc/o sleep
myel/o spinal cord or bone marrow
-lexia reading
-lepsy seizure, attack
mening.o meanings
kinesi.o movement
-kinesia movement
gli/o neuroglia or gluey substance
esthesii/o feeling , senesation
-esthesia sensation of feeling
encephal/o brain
crani/o skull, cranium
cerebr/o cerebrum
cerebell/o cerebellum
brady- slow
-algia pain
alges/o sensitivty to pain
-algesia sensetivity to pain
an- without, not
a- without,not
Created by: Courtneey