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WHI Middle Ages

Based off of VaDOE SOLs

What 3 things were the foundation of Medieval society? classical heritage of Rome, Christian religion, Customs of Germanic tribes
What does secular mean? worldly, not religious (not focused or based in religion)
As secular authority declined in the middle ages, whose authority increased? Church
Where was Greco-Roman culture preserved during the middle ages? Monasteries (where the monks live)
What did missionaries carry to new people? Christianity and Latin language
Who became Emperor in 800 CE Charlemagne
Who anoited Charlemagne Emperor? Pope (Shows that the church has power over political authority)
Who served the religious and social needs of the people Parish priests (the priest who lived in your local community)
As the Roman Empire fell due to invasions, what did that do to the protection that Roman soldier provided for the empire? Led to feudal system because people were looking for protection
What is a fief? Land given to vassals by nobles
What is a feudal obligation? It is a mutual agreement between peasants and vassals where each provides something for the other. Peasants provide labor, vassals provide protection
What is the manorial system? It is an economic system that is self-sufficient (provides for itself)
What are some achievements of Charlemagne? Franks (from France) emerged as a political force in western Europe; churches, roads and schools were built to unite the empire.
Where were Angles and Saxons from?
Where did Angles and Saxons settle? England
Where were Magyars from? Central Asia
Where did Magyars settle? Hungary
Where were Vikings from? Scandinavia
Where did Vikings eventually settle after stealing all of your stuff? Russia
How did Manors and castles reinforce the feudal system? Provides protection from invaders for everyone in the system and strengthens the system
How did invasions affect trade? Trade declined
Who was the leader of the Norman conquest and united most of England? William the Conqueror
What is common law? Law developed from court decisions
Common law had its origins in England under which leader? Henry II
What was the Magna Carta? A document from 1215 that limited the power of the monarchy in England. (Parliament - like our Congress - evolved out of this)
Who had to sign the Magna Carta? King John
Who was the 100 Years War between? England and France (it helped define each as a nation)
Who established the French throne in Paris and started a dynasty? Hugh Capet
Who was a teenager who fought in the 100 Years War, unified France and was eventually burned at the stake. Joan of Arc
Which monarchs unified Spain Ferdinand and Isabella
Which groups of people did Ferdinand and Isabella expel from Spain? Jews and Muslim Moors (Islamic Spaniards)
Which Russian threw off Mongol rule and centralized power in Russia? Ivan the Great
What was the Russian title for king? Czar, Tzar, Csar, Tsar
Which Church influenced unification in Russia Orthodox Church (Eastern or Greek)
What are the 5 events of the Crusades? Pope Urban's Speech, Capture Jerusalem, Create Crusader states, Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin, Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders
Following the Crusades, what happens to the power of the Pope It declines, Pope is weakened
Following the Crusades, what happens to trade? More trading takes place between Europe and Middle East (where Crusader states were located)
Which Empire was heavily weakened by the Crusades Byzantine
Which group invaded Russia, China, and the Muslim states in Southwest Asia (pretty much destroying everything)? Mongols
Who conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453? Ottoman Turks (Ottoman Empire) - They were from TURKey
What did the Ottomans rename Constantinople? Istanbul
Where did the Black Plague start? East Asia (China)
How did the Black Plague Spread? Along trade routes (Fleas on rats)
What are 5 impacts of the Black Plague? Population decrease, scarcity of labor (lack of workers), feudal agreements went away, church influence goes down (people loss faith), trade disrupted (no one wants to trade in infected areas)
Who were educated during the Middle Ages? Clergy (Peasants worked and nobles were busy fighting)
Where did church scholars work during the Middle Ages? Monasteries
Monks translated texts out of Greek and Arabic into which language? Latin
Church scholars through translating texts and making knowledge available led to the rise of ______________________ in Europe universities
Created by: wengerkl