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AL 101-chapter 14


carp/o carpals (wrist bones)
clavic/o, clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o rib
crani/o cranium (skull)
femor/o femur (upper leg bone)
fibul/o fibula (lower leg bone)
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o ilium
ischi/o ischium
mandibul/o mandible (lower jawbone)
lumb/o loin, lumbar region of the spine
maxill/o maxilla (upper jawbone)
myel/o bone marrow
patell/o patella (kneecap)
pelv/i, pelv/o pelvis, pelvic bone
phalang/o phalanges (finger or toe bones)
pub/o pubis
rachi/o spine, vertebral column
radi/o radius (lower arm bone)
sacr/o sacrum
scapul/o scapula (shoulder blade)
spondyl/o, vertebr/o vertebra
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
tars/o tarsals (ankle bones)
tibi/o tibia (lower leg bone)
uln/o ulna (lower arm bone)
aponeur/o aponeurosis
arthr/o joint
burs/o bursa (cavity)
chondr/o cartilage
disk/o intervertebral disk
menisc/o meniscus (crescent)
synovi/o synovia, synovial membrane
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon
ankyl/o crooked, stiff, bent
kinesi/o movement, motion
kyph/o hump
lamin/o lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)
lord/o bent forward
my/o, myos/o muscle
oste/o bone
petr/o stone
scoli/o crooked, curved
inter- between
supra- above
sym-, syn- together, joined
-asthenia weakness
-clasia, -clasis, -clast break
-desis surgical fixation, fusion
-physis growth
-schisis split, fissure
periosteum outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone contains little spaces like a sponge & is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis shaft of the long bones
epiphysis (pl. epiphyses) end of each long bone
bone marrow material found in the cavities of bones
red marrow thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation.
yellow marrow soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
maxilla upper jawbone
mandible lower jawbone
vertebral column made up of bones called VERTEBRAE (pl.) or VERTEBRA (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, & provides a point of attachment for ribs & muscles.
cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7) first set of seven bones, forming the neck
thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12) second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.
lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
sacrum next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
coccyx four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
lamina (pl. laminae) part of the vertebral arch
clavicle collarbone
scapula shoulder blade
acromion process extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder
sternum breastbone
xiphoid process lower portion of the sternum
humerus upper arm bone
ulna & radius lower arm bones
olecranon process projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
carpal bones wrist bones
metacarpal bones hand bones
phalanges (sing. phalanx) finger and toe bones
pelvic bone, hip bone made up of three bones fused together
ischium lower, rear portion on which one sits
ilium upper, wing-shaped part on each side
pubus anterior portion of the pelvic bone
acetabulum large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
femur upper leg bone
tibia & fibula lower leg bones
patella (pl. patellae) kneecap
tarsal bones ankle bones
calcaneus heel bone
metatarsal bones foot bones
articular cartilage smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intevertebral disk cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together
synovia fluid secreted by the synovial membrane & found in joint cavities
bursa (pl. bursae) fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
skeletal muscles (also known as STRIATED MUSCLES) attached to bones by tendons & make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling & by working in pairs. They are also known as VOLUNTARY MUSCLES because we have control over these muscles.
smooth muscles (also known as UNSTRIATED MUSCLES) located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels & the digestive tract. They are also called INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves & are not controlled voluntarily.
cardiac muscle (known as MYOCARDIUM) forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat.
abduction movement of drawing away from the middle
adduction movement of drawing toward the middle
inversion turning inward
eversion turning outward
extension movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position
flexion movement in which a limb is bent
pronation movement that turns the palm down
supination movement that turns the palm up
rotation turning around its own axis
ankylosis abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fixation of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)
arthritis inflammation of a joint. (The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis.)
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
cranioschisis fissure of the skull (congenital)
diskitis inflammation of an intervertebral disk (also called DISCITIS)
fibromyalgia pain in the fibrous tissues & muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain & stiffness of muscles, fatigue, & disturbed sleep)
kyphosis abnormal condition of a hump (of the thoracic spine) (also called HUNCHBACK or HUMPBACK)
lordosis abnormal condition of bending forward (forward curvature of the lumbar spine) (also called SWAYBACK)
maxillitis inflammation of the maxilla
meniscitis inflammation of a meniscus
myasthenia muscle weakness
myeloma tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)
osteitis inflammation of the bone
osteoarthritis (OA) inflammation of the bone & joint
osteochondritis inflammation of the bone & cartilage
osteofibroma tumor of the bone & fibrous tissue (benign)
osteomalacia softening of bones
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone & bone marrow (caused by bacterial infection)
osteopenia abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis & can lead to osteoporosis)
osteopetrosis abnormal condition of stonelike bones (marblelike bones caused by increased formation of bone)
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of the bone
polymyositis inflammation of many muscles
rachischisis fissure of the vertebral column (congenital) (also called SPINA BIFIDA)
rhabdomyolysis dissolution of striated muscle (The severity of the condition & the degree of weakness & pain vary. Some causes of the illness are trauma, extreme exertion, & drug toxicity; in severe cases renal failure can result.)
scoliosis abnormal (lateral) curve (of the spine)
spondylarthritis inflammation of the vertebral joints
spondylosis abnormal condition of the vertebra (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthritis or ankylosis)
synoviosarcoma malignant tumor of the synovial membrane
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon (also spelled TENDONITIS)
tenosynovitis inflammation of the tendon & synovial membrane
ankylosing spondylitis form of arthritis that first affects the spine & adjacent structures & that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called STRUMPELL-MARIE ARTHRITIS or DISEASE, or RHEUMATOID SPONDYLITIS)
bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called HALLUX VALGUS)
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain & parasthesia in portions of the hand & fingers.
Colles fracture a type of wrist fracture. The fracture is at the lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward.
exostosis abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called a SPUR)
fracture (fx) broken bone
myel/o bone marrow. Also means SPINAL CORD.
gout disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crstals (TOPHI) to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
herniated disk rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots (also called SLIPPED DISK, RUPTURED DISK, HERNIATED INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, or HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS [HNP])
Lyme disease an infection caused by a bacteria (Borrelia Burgodorferi)carried by deer ticks & transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. (See p. 638 for more info.)
muscular dystrophy (MD) group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle & weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG) chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness & thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, & throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.
osteoporosis abnormal loss of bone density occurring predominantly in postmenopausal women, which can lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic & lumbar vertebrae, hips, & wrists.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) a chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body
spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. The condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration. Symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs & numbness or tingling in the lower extremities.
spondylolisthesis forward slipping of one vertebra over another
aponeurorrhaphy suture of an aponeurosis
arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid
arthroclasia (surgical) breaking of a (stiff) joint
arthrodesis surgical fixation of a joint (also called joint fusion)
arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint
bursectomy excision of a bursa
carpectomy excision of a carpal bone
chondrectomy excision of a cartilage
chondroplasty surgical repair of a cartilage
costectomy excision of a rib
cranioplasty surgical repair of the skull
craniotomy incision of the skull (as for surgery of the brain)
diskectomy excision of an intervertebral disk (a portion of the disk is removed to relieve pressure on nerve roots) (also spelled DISCETOMY)
laminectomy excision of a lamina (often performed to relieve pressure on the nerve roots in the lower spine caused by a herniated disk & other conditions)
maxillectomy excision of the maxilla
maniscectomy excision of the meniscus (performed for a torn cartilage)
myorrhaphy suture of a muscle
ostectomy excision of bone
osteoclasis (surgical) breaking of a bone (to correct a deformity)
patellectomy excision of the patella
phalangectomy excision of a finger or toe bone
rachiotomy incision into the vertebral column
spondylosyndesis fusing together of the vertebrae (spinal fusion)
synovectomy excision of the synovial membrane (of a joint)
tarsectomy excision of (one or more) tarsal bones
tenomyoplasty surgical repair of the tendon & muscle
tenorrhaphy suture of a tendon
vertebroplasty surgical repair of the vertebra
arthropraphy radiographic imaging of a joint (w/ contrast media). (Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] generally replaced arthrography for diarthrodial [movable] joints such as knee, wrist, hip, & shoulder. Arthrography is used for special times when metal is in body.)
arthroscopy visual examination of a joint (used for diarthrodial [movable] joint)
electromyogram (EMG) record of the (intrinsic) electrical activity in a (skeletal) muscle
arthralgia pain in the joint
atrophy without development (wasting)
bradykinesia slow movement
carpal pertaining to the wrist
cranial pertaining to the cranium
dyskinesia difficult movement
dystrophy abnormal development
femoral pertaining to the femur
humeral pertaining to the humerus
hyperkinesia excessive movement (overactive)
hypertrophy excessive development
iliofemoral pertaining to the ilium & femur
intercostal pertaining to between the ribs
intervertebral pertaining to between the vertebrae
intracranial pertaining to within the cranium
ischiofibular pertaining to the ischium & fibula
ischiopubic pertaining to the ischium & pubis
lumbar pertaining to the loins (the part of the back between the thorax & pelvis)
lumbocostal pertaining to the loins & the ribs
lumbosacral pertaining to the lumbar regions (loin) & the sacrum
osteoblast developing bone (cell)
osteocyte bone cell
osteonecrosis abnormal death of bone (tissues)
pelvic pertaining to the pelvis
pelvisacral pertaining to the pelvis & the sacrum
pubic pertaining to the pubis
pubofemoral pertaining to the pubis & femur
sacral pertaining to the sacrum
sternoclavicular pertaining to the sternum & clavicle
sternoid resembling the sternum
subcostal pertaining to below the rib
submandibular pertaining to below the mandible
submaxillary pertaining to below the maxilla
subscapular pertaining to below the scapula
substernal pertaining to below the sternum
suprapatellar pertaining to above the patella
suprasscapular pertaining to above the scapula
symphysis growing together (as in symphysis pubis)
vertebrocostal pertaining to the vertebrae & ribs
chiropodist, podiatrist specialist in treating & diagnosing diseases & disorders of the foot, including medical & surgical treatment
chiropractic system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
crepitus crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each other / grating caused by rubbing together of dry surfaces of a joint. (Also-to describe crackling sound heard w/pneumonia or sound heard from discharge of gas from the bowel.) Also called crepitation.
orthopedics (ortho) branch of medicine dealing w/the study & treatment of diseases & abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist physician who specializes in orthopedics
orthotics making & fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as arch supports, used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities
orthotist a person who specializes in orthotics
osteopath physician who specializes in osteopathy
osteopathy system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis & treatment but places greater emphasis on the role of the relation between body organs & the musculoskeletal system; manipulation may be used in addition to other treatments
prosthesis (pl. prostheses) an artificial substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement
THA total hip arthroplasty
Created by: wututor