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AL 101-chapter 4

Ch. 4 Terminology

cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o skin
hidr/o sweat
kerat/o horny tissue, hard
onych/o, ungu/o nail
seb/o sebum (oil)
trich/o hair
aut/o self
bi/o life
coni/o dust
crypt/o hidden
heter/o other
myc/o fungus
necr/o death (cells, body)
pachy/o thick
rhytid/o wrinkles
staphyl/o grapelike clusters
strept/o twisted chains
xer/o dry
epi- on, upon, over
intra- within
para- beside, beyond, around, abnormal
per- through
sub- under, below
trans- through, across, beyond
-a noun suffix, no meaning
-coccus (p. -cocci) berry shaped (form of bacterium)
-ectomy excision or surgical removal
-ia diseased or abnormal state, condition of
-itis inflammation
-malacia softening
-opsy view of, viewing
-phagia eating or swallowing
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhea flow, discharge
-tome instrument used to cut
integumentary system composed of the skin, nails, and glands
epidermis outer layer of skin
keratin Horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin, and nails.
melanin color, or pigmentation, of the skin
dermis inner layer of skin (also called the TRUE SKIN)
sudoriferous (sweat) glands tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat
sebaceous glands secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis
hair compressed, keratinized cells that arise from hair follicles, the sacs that enclose the hair fibers
nails originate in the epidermis. Nails are found on the upper surface of the ends of the fingers and toes. The white area at the base of the nail is called the LUNULA, or MOON.
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermatoconiosis abnormal condition of the skin caused by dust
dermatofibroma fibrous tumor of the skin
hidradenitis inflammation of a sweat gland
leiodermia condition of smooth skin
onychocryptosis abnormal condition of a hidden nail (also called INGROWN NAIL)
onychomalacia softening of the nails
onychomycosis abnormal condition of a fungus in the nails
onychophagia eating the nails (nail biting)
pachyderma thickening of the skin
paronychia diseased state around the nail
seborrhea discharge of sebum
trichomycosis abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair
xeroderma dry skin
abrasion scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury
abscess localized collection of pus
acne inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
actinic keratosis a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight. It may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma.
albinism congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
basal cell carcinoma (BCC) epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. It seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. Common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure.
candidiasis an infection of the skin, mouth (also called THRUSH), or vagina caused by the yeast-type fungus, Candida albicans. Candida is normally present in the mucous membranes; overgrowth causes an infection.
carbuncle skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria
cellulitis inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection, leading to redness, swelling, and fever
contusion injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration (also called a BRUISE)
eczema noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, blisters, scabs, and itching
fissure slit or cracklike sore in the skin
furuncle painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria n a hair follicle (also called a BOIL)
gangrene death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion (a form of necrosis)
herpes inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters. (Herpes simplex=fever blisters, herpes zoster=shingles)
impetigo superficial skin infection characterized by pustules and cuased by either staphylococci or streptococci.
Kaposi sarcoma a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs. Frequently seen w/AIDS.
lesion any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease. It is a broad term that includes sores, wounds, ulcers, and tumors.
pediculosis invasion into the skin and hair by lice
psoriasis chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
rosacea chronic disorder of the skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 years. Also called ACNE ROSACEA.
scabies skin infection caused by the itch mite, characterized by papule eruptions that are caused by the female burrowing in the outer layer of the skin & laying eggs. This is accompanied by severe itching.
scleroderma a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs.
shingles development of painful, inflamed blisters that follow the nerve routes; caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox (also called HERPES ZOSTER)
squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCA) a malignant growth that develops from scale-like epithelial tissue. Unlike basal cell carcinoma, there is a significant potential for metastasis. The most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin, joints, kidneys, & nervous system. This autoimmune disease is characterized by periods of remission & exacerbations. It also may affect other organs.
tinea fungal infection of the skin. The fungi may infect keratin of the skin, hair & nails. Infections are classified by body regions, such as tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corporis (body), & tinea pedis (foot)=ATHLETE'S FOOT. Tinea is also known as RINGWORM.
urticaria an itching skin eruption composed of wheals of varying size & shape. It is usually related to an allergy (also called HIVES).
biopsy (bx) view of life (the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under the microscope).
dermatoautoplasty surgical repair using one's own skin (skin graft). Also called AUTOGRAFT.
dermatoheteroplasty surgical repair using skin from others (skin graft). Also called ALLOGRAFT.
dermatome instrument used to cut skin (in thin slices for skin grafts)
dermatoplasty surgical repair of the skin
onychectomy excision of a nail
rhytidectomy excision of wrinkles (also called FACELIFT)
rhytidoplasty surgical repair of wrinkles
excisional biopsy removes the entire lesion along with a margin of surrounding tissue
punch biopsy removes a cylindrical portion of tissue with a specifically designed round knife
shave biopsy removes a sample of tissue with a cut parallel to the surrounding skin
cauterization destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, electric current, or caustic substance (also called CAUTERY)
cryosurgery destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen
debridement removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound
dermabrasion procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper
excision removal by cutting
incision surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument
incision and drainage (I&D) surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a lesion, wound, or cavity
laser surgery procedure using an instrument that emits a high-powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissue
Mohs surgery technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers
suturing to stitch edges of a wound surgically
dermatologist a physician who studies & treats skin (diseases)
dermatology (derm) study of the skin (a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis & treatment of skin diseases)
epidermal pertaining to upon the skin
erythroderma red skin (abnormal redness of the skin)
hypodermic pertaining to under the skin
intradermal (ID) pertaining to within the skin
keratogenic originating in horny tissue
leukoderma white skin (less color than normal)
necrosis abnormal condition of death (cells & tissue die because of disease)
percutaneous pertaining to through the skin
staphylococcus (pl. is STAPHYLOCOCCI) also known as STAPH berry-shaped (bacteria) in grapelike clusters (these bacteria cause many skin diseases)
streptococcus (pl. is STREPTOCOCCI) also known as STREP berry-shaped (bacteria) in twisted chains
subcutaneous (subcut) pertaining to under the skin
transdermal (TD) pertaining to through the skin
ungual pertaining to the nail
xanthoderma yellow skin (also called JAUNDICE)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Stapylococcus aureus) a strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin & other antibiotics.
adipose fat, fatty
allergy hypersensitivity to a substance
alopecia loss of hair
bacteria (s. bacterium) single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue
cicatrix scar
cyst a closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material
cytomegalovirus (CMV) a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
diaphoresis profuse sweating
ecchymosis escape of blood into the tissues, causing superficial discoloration; a "black & blue" mark (also called a bruise)
edema puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid
emollient agent that softens or smooths the skin
erythema redness
fungus (pl. fungi) organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surroundings & may cause infection by invading body tissue; single-celled fungi (yeast) reproduce by budding; multicelled fungi (mold) reproduce by spore formation
induration abnormal hard spot(s)
jaundice condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (also called xanthoderma)
keloid overgrowth of scar tissue
leukoplakia condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane, which may be precancerous
macule flat, colored spot on the skin
nevus (pl. nevi) circumscribed malformation of the skin, usually brown, black, or flesh colored. A congenital nevus is present at birth & is referred to as a birthmark (also called a mole).
nodule a small knotlike mass that can be felt by touch
pallor paleness
papule small, solid skin elevation (also called a pimple)
petechia (pl. petechiae) a pinpoint skin hemorrhage
pressure ulcer (decub) eroded sore on the skin caused by prolonged pressure, often occurring in bed-ridden patients. (Also called a decubitus ulcer or bed sore.)
pruritus severe itching
purpura disorder characterized by hemorrhages into the tissue, giving the skin a purple-red discoloration
pustule elevation of skin containing pus
ulcer eroded sore on the skin or mucous membrane
verruca circumscribed cutaneous elevation cuased by a virus (also called a wart)
vesicle small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid (also called blister)
virus minute microorganism, much smaller than bacterium, characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the ability to replicate only within living host cells; may cause infection by invading body tissue
wheal transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area; a wheal is an individual urticaria (hive) lesion
Created by: wututor



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