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WH1 SOL Review

World 1 to 1500 SOL Review

Who emerged in East Africa between 100,000 - 400,000 years ago? Homo Sapiens
Homo Sapiens ________________ from Africa to Eurasia, Australia and the Americas. Migrated
Early Humans were hunter gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of _______________. Wild plants and animals
Paleolithic means... Old stone age
Paleolithic people were nomadic in search of food, water and ___________. Shelter
Early Humans invented the first tools, simple weapons and learned how to make and use _________. Fire
Early Humans lived in ________, developed an __________ language and created ____________ art (1) Clans, (2) Oral, & (3) Cave
Societies during the Neolithic (New Stone Age) domesticated what two things? (1) Plants & (2) Animals
Neolithic people used advanced tools, made pottery and developed ________________ skills Weaving
Who studies past culture by locating and analyzing human remains, settlements, fossils and artifacts? Archaeologists
What is a scientific test used to date and analyze fossils and artifacts? Radio Carbon Dating or Carbon Dating
What is an example of an archaeological site in England started during the Neolithic and finished during the Bronze Age? Stonehenge
What two cities are examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent? Aleppo & Jericho
What is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently under excavation in Anatolia? Catalhoyuk
Which river valley civilization took place in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley? Mesopotamia
Which river valley civilization took place in the Nile River Valley and Nile Delta? Egypt
Which river valley civilization took place in the Indus River Valley (South Asia)? Indian
Which river valley civilization took place in the Huang He Valley (East Asia)? Chinese
River valleys offered rich __________ and irrigation ___________. (1) Soil & (2) Water
The River valleys tended to be in locations easily protected from _______________ by nomads. Invasions
Who settled between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River and were ancestors of the Jews? Hebrews
Who settled along the Mediterranean coast and were known for trading on the sea and a first form of alphabet? Phoenicians
What civilization was located on the upper or southern Nile River in Africa? Nubians
Most early civilizations had a rigid class system where ____________ was accepted but was not based on race. Slavery
Early civilizations had hereditary rulers such as as kings or ______________ in Egypt. Pharoahs
City-states, kingdoms and empires are all examples of the world's first ... States
Centralized governments were often based on ___________________ authority. Religious
Early civilizations had law codes such as the Code of ____________________ or the _________________, a moral code that the Jews believe were given to Moses by God. (1) Hammurabi & (2) Ten Commandments
The first two types of metal for tools and weapons were... (1) Bronze & (2) Iron
Most early civilizations believed in many gods or... Polytheism
The Hebrews were the first group of people to believe in only one God or... Monotheism
The founders of Judaism are considered to be both... (1) Abraham & (2) Moses
The holy city of Judaism is... Jerusalem
The written records and beliefs of the Jews is called the ... Torah
The Jewish people spread away from their homeland. This spreading out, which helped spread Judaism, was called... Diaspora
When the Jews were being held captive as slaves by the Egyptians or others, this was known as being in... Exile
The earliest written symbols are collectively known as ... Pictograms
The writing of Ancient Egyptians is called... Hieroglyphics
The writing of Ancient Sumerians on clay tablets is called... Cuneiform
Built on earlier central Asian and Mesopotamian civilizations, __________ developed the largest empire in the world. Persia
Persians believed in ______________ of their conquered people. Tolerance
The Persians constructed a huge _______________ system for trade and travel. Road
The religion of the Persians with a belief in two opposing forces in the universe was called.. Zoroastrianism
What two mountain ranges and one body of water made it difficult to invade the Indian Civilization? (1) Himalayas & (2) Hindu Kush
The most important two rivers in the Indus River Valley were the ... Indus & Ganges
The two most important cities in the Indus River Valley were ... (1) Harappa & (2) Mohenjo-Daro
What group of people crossed into the Indian subcontinent from the North and brought in the Caste system, a social class system that would influence all social actions and occupations? Aryans
Which Empire spread Buddhism with ASOKA, had free hospitals, good roads and veterinary clinics? Mauryans
What was the Golden Age of the Indian Civilization that included setting of bones, concept of round earth, textiles and literature? Gupta
What Indian religion has many forms of one God? Hinduism
What term means rebirth & is based on karma? Reincarnation
What is knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences? Karma
Hinduism was spread on trade routes and two of its holy texts are... (1) Vedas & (2) Upanishads
Who founded Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Whose missionaries and writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia? Asoka
What is another name for the Huang He River? Yellow River
Settlements from the North kept invading China so Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi built the... Great Wall
The ________________ facilitated trade between China all the way to the Mediterranean. Silk Road
An organized system of hiring government workers was created in China. It was known as the... Civil Service System
The three main items of trade from China were... (1) Paper, (2) Porcelain & (3) Silk
What Chinese religion believed humans are good, respect for elders, ancestor worship and a code of politeness? Confucianism
Another religion created in China was called ______________. It had a focus on nature,simple life, inner peace and humility. Daoism (Taoism)
This symbol represents both the good and bad (dark and light) or the opposites for both Taoism and Confucianism. Yin & Yang
Which Classical civilization had the two city-states of Sparta and Athens? Greek
The Greeks had a shift from a barter economy to one that used... Money (coins)
What physical feature both helped prevent invasion but also limited growth in ancient Greece (kept them from being unified)? Mountains
Greek Colonization was needed due to overpopulation and a need for ________________ land. Arable (farmable)
What was based on a polytheistic religion and offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities and life events? Mythology
Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena and Aphrodite are all examples of _____________________ who have become image used in Western literature, art and architecture. Greek Gods & Goddesses
A Greek city-state is known as a... Polis
Citizens were free adult males and had _______________ rights and responsibility of government participation. Political
Women, foreigners and _____________ had no political rights. Slaves
Athens had an evolution of different styles of government: From Monarchy to Aristocracy to Tyranny and finally a ... Democracy
The two tyrant leaders who worked for reform in Athens were... (1) Draco & (2) Solon
The origin of Democratic principles started in Greece such as a _____________ Democracy, public debate and duties of the citizen. Direct
Sparta was ruled by a small group called an _______________. It had a rigid social structure and were very militaristic. Oligarchy
Which wars united Athens and Sparta a common enemy? Persian Wars
The Athenian victories over the Persians at the battles of _________________________ left the Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea. (1) Marathon & (2) Salamis
In the Peloponnesian War, Athens and Sparta fought each other. Athens formed the ___________ League while Sparta formed the ____________ League. (1) Delian & (2) Peloponnesian
The Peloponnesian War left Greece politically weak and also saw a decline of _______________. Culture
The Golden Age that took place between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars was dominated by this man. Pericles
Pericles extended democracy & rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars. The ___________________ is an example of this reconstruction. Parthenon
These two were known for Greek Drama. (1) Aeschylus & (2) Sophocles
This was the author of the Iliad and Odyssey. Homer
The two historians of Greece were... (1) Herodotus & (2) Thucydides
The sculptor of Ancient Greece was... Phidias
The three types of columns in Greece were ... (1) Doric, (2) Ionic, & (3) Corinthian
The scientists of Greece were... (1) Archimedes & (2) Hippocrates (Doctor's oath)
The mathematicians of Greece were... (1) Euclid & (2) Pythagoras)
The three philosophers were... (1) Socrates, (2) Plato & (3) Aristotle
Philip II of Macedon conquered most of ... Greece
Philip II had a son named______________ and he established Hellenistic culture (a blend of Greek and oriental elements) from Greece to India. Alexander
Rome was centrally located in the ___________ Basin on the _____________ peninsula. (1) Mediterranean & (2) Italian
Rome was protected by the ________ mountain range and the __________________ Sea. (1) Alps & (2) Mediterranean
Roman mythology was based on the __________ polytheistic religion. Greek
Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Minerva and Venus were all _________________. Roman Gods & Goddesses
The Roman powerful nobility (although few in numbers) were the... Patricians
The majority of the people in Rome were known as the... Plebeians
Citizenship, taxes, military services, etc., was only for selected foreigners and both Patrician and ____________ men. Plebeian
Features of the Roman democracy included a ________________ democracy, assemblies, the Senate and consuls. Representative
The laws of Rome were codified as the __________________________. Twelve Tables
The wars that included Rome vs Carthage (both in competition for trade)were called the... Punic Wars
Who crossed the Alps with his Elephants and invaded the Italian peninsula? Hannibal
How many wars were there in all?______ and who ended up the victor? (1) Three & (2) Rome
The _________________ Republic crossed Africa, Asia, Europe and the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean. (Also Western Europe: Gaul and British Isles) Roman
The decline of the Roman Republic was due to: A) spread of slavery in agricultural system B) Migration of farmers to citites C) Civil war over power of Julius Caesar D) Devaluation of Roman currency and inflation E) All of the Above (E) All of the above
The rule of three when Julius Caesar ruled, was also known as the first... Triumvirate
What ultimately happened to Julius Caesar? Assassinated
Who defeated Marc Anthony in a civil war and became the first emperor of Rome? Augustus Caesar (Octavian)
Imperial Rome failed to provide for a peaceful succession of ... emperors
The two centuries of peace that existed in Rome was called the... Pax Romana
The Peace of Rome established a uniform money system and guaranteed safe travel and trade on ... Roman Roads
Pax Romana returned stability to social classes and increased emphasis on the ... Family
Christianity had its roots in ... Judaism
Christianity was led by Jesus of _________________ who was proclaimed the Messiah. Nazareth
Christianity conflicted with the ____________ beliefs of the Roman Empire. Polytheistic
Christianity is monotheistic and sees Jesus as both the _______ and incarnation of God. Son
The _____________________ contains accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus and other early writings of early Christians. New Testament
Christianity was carried and spread by the _______________ including Paul. Apostles
The Emperor ________________ converted to Christianity and made it legal. Constantine
______________ became the official state religion of Rome. Christianity
Loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the ... Emperor
The ______________ became the unifying force of the Western Europe. Christian Church
Architecture of the Roman empire includes the Forum, Pantheon and the _______________ where the gladiators performed. Colisseum
Roman technology included Roads, Arches and a way to carry water, ... Aqueducts
The Roman scientist that proposed the Geocentric Model was... Ptolemy
The language of Rome was ____________ which is the basis of many romance languages. Latin
Rome had an emphasis on public health including, public baths, public water systems and schools for... Medicine
The author, Virgil, wrote the... Aeneid
Innocent until proven guilty came from the law code known as the ... Twelve Tables
The Roman empire declined because it was too _____________to maintain an army and the empire was too large. Expensive
The Roman empire also declined because of moral decay, non-Roman soldiers, and_______________ along the borders. Invasions
Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it... Constantinople
The Western Empire survived until 476 when it ceased to have an ... Emperor
The Eastern Roman Empire was called the ... Byzantine
Constantinople was protected on the Eastern frontier and was considered the crossroads of... Trade (coming from Asia, Africa & rest of Europe)
Constantinople stayed the seat of Byzantine power until they were conquered by the ... Ottomans (1453)
The most important Byzantine Emperor was... Justinian
Justinian coded Roman law and had a reconquest of formerly held ____________ lands Roman
Byzantine Icons were ____________ images. Religious
Small stones and titles or bits of glass put together to make a picture was called a... Mosaic
The Byzantine domed church in Constantinople was called the... Hagia Sophia
The language spoken in Byzantium was ... Greek
The religion in the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) was called Eastern (Greek) Orthodox
Greek and Roman knowledge was preserved in Byzantine... Libraries
The Roman Catholic Church was centered in _____________ and followed the authority of the ______________. (1) Rome & (2) Pope
The Roman Catholic Church (Western Church) priests practiced ... Celibacy
The authority of the Orthodox church was the... Patriarch
Byzantine trade routes existed between the Black and _____________ Seas Mediterranean
Russia adopted this type of Christianity. Eastern (Greek) Orthodox
St Cyril created the Cyrillic ____________ who was used for Slavic languages. Alphabet
______________ is the prophet of Islam. Muhammad
The two holy cities for Islam, located on the Arabian peninsula are... (1) Mecca & (2) Medina
The holy book of Muslims (followers of Islam) Qu'ran
The rules of Islam are called the... Five Pillars
Muslims accept the Judeo-Christian _______________ including Jesus and Moses. Prophets
Islam experienced diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and ... Medina
Islam spread and had a vast empire despite great distances, mountains and dry, empty ______________ environments. Desert
Islam spread easily due to the weakening of the Byzantine and ___________ Empires. Persian
The language of the Islamic Empire was... Arabic
With the death of the caliph Ali, there was a division of followers. The Sunni and the... Shi'a
The Muslims conquered Jerusalem in Palestine and ____________, in Syria. Damascus
The Islamic capital was eventually moved to ____________ in present-day, Iraq. Baghdad
Baghdad fell to the ... Mongols
Muslims were defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of ... Tours
The _____________________ is a Muslim mosque located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Dome of the Rock
Arabic numbers were adapted from _____________ and included zero. India
The Muslims were also experienced in Algebra and in the _____________ field. Medical
The Muslims were also experienced in Algebra and in the _____________ field. Medical
Early Medieval Society had __________ religious beliefs, Customs of Germanic Tribes and the Classical heritage of Rome. Christian
What preserved Greco-Roman culture? Monasteries
_____________ carried Christianity and the Latin alphabet to Germanic Tribes. Missionaries
The Pope anointed _______________ Holy Roman Emperor in 800 CE. Charlemagne
Parish ___________ served religious and social needs of people. priests
The __________________ system was created because invasions shattered Roman protection over the Empire. Feudal
The recipient of the land (fief) was known as the ... Vassal
Those tied to the land of the Manorial system were... Serfs
The Manorial system consisted of a rigid class structure and self-sufficient ... Manors
The ______________ were the force in Western Europe. Franks
Churches, roads and _______________ were built to unite the empire. Schools
_______________ and _____________ migrated from continental Europe to England. (1) Angles & (2) Saxons
Magyars migrated from Central Asia to... Hungary
The __________________ migrated from Scandinavia to Russia. Vikings
Manors with these fortified structures protected from invaders. Castles
Invasions disrupted trade, towns declined and the feudal system was ... Strengthened
The main trade route from Asia to Europe was the ... Silk Road
Maritime routes existed across the ___________ Ocean. Indian
Trans-Saharan routes existed across... North Africa (Sahara)
Trade existed in N. Europe with the Black Sea, and in Asia with the lands around the South __________ Sea. China
_____________ came from West Africa as well as Salt. Gold
______________ to season food were from the Indian Ocean region. Spices
Porcelain came from ... China
Textiles came from everywhere, while Amber came from the _____________ region. Baltic
Paper came from China to the ____________ world then to the rest of Europe. Muslim
Sugar crops came from... India
Waterwheels and ___________ came from the Middle East. Windmills
The Compass came from ______________ and the Lateen sail from ___________. (1) China & (2) India
Buddhism spread from China to Korea and ________________. Japan
Hinduism and Buddhism came from ______________ and moved to SE Asia. India
Islam went into West Africa as well as Central and South East _______________. Asia
Printing and paper _____________ came from China. Money
Japan has four main islands located on the not flat but, ______________ archipelago. Mountainous
Japan is very close to both China and _______________. Korea
Chinese influence on Japanese culture took the form of writing, ___________ and Buddhism. Architecture
_________________ was an ethnic religion, unique to Japan. Shintoism
Shintoism focuses on forces of ___________, natural features and ancestors. Nature
Shinto was a ___________ religion that coexisted with Buddhism. State
Axum was a _________________ kingdom located to the East of the Nile River on the Ethiopian Highlands. Christian
The Zambezi River was to the North and the Limpopo to the South, and the Indian Ocean to the East of ______________. Zimbabwe
The Capital of Zimbabwe was called ... Great Zimbabwe
Ghana was the first empire to have ________________ as its center of trade and learning. Timbuktu
Mali was known for its ___________ trade. Gold
The Songhai was the largest of the three empires that existed along the ___________ River. Niger
A belief (in West African Kingdoms) that every living thing has a soul was called... Animism
The ___________ civilization was located in the Mexican and Central American Rainforest. Maya
The Mayan Empire was ruled with kings over their city-states, the main capital city being... Chichen Itza
Mayan civilization was based on ______________ and trade. Agriculture
Aztecs, Mayans and Incans all believed in many gods, and most had monuments for worship (similar to the Egyptians) called... Pyramids
The Aztecs, located in central Mexico, were represented by the city... Tenochtitlan
The Aztecs were ruled by an .. Emperor
Their economy was based on agriculture and _____________ from conquered people. Tribute (taxes)
The Aztec also had pyramids where they would preform religious _________________. Rituals (Human Sacrifices)
The Incan civilization was located in the _________ Mountains of S. America. Andes
The Incan Empire was represented by the city of ________________ and was ruled by an emperor. Machu Picchu
Incan economy was based on High _____________ agriculture. Altitude (Terraced Farming)
The Incan also had an extensive travel or _______ system. Road
Collectively, The Aztec, Mayan and Incan achieved the creation of calendars, math, writing and ohter ____________________ systems. Record Keeping
William the Conqueror was the leader of the ___________ Conquest and united most of England. Norman
Common Law had its start during the reign of... Henry II
King John signed the ______________ which limited the king's power. Magna Carta
The Hundred Years' War was fought over land between England and ________________ and helped define them as nations. France
The ________________ grew more and more and its power would rival that of the king. Parliament
_____________ established the French throne in Paris. Hugh Capet
_____________ helped unify France, and eventually was burned at the stake. Joan of Arc
In Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country and kicked out the ______________ and _____________ (1) Jews & (2) Moors
The Spanish Empire grew under... Charles V
In Russia, Ivan III (the Great) threw off the rule of the ______________. Mongols (Tatars)
Ivan the Great (the tsar) centralized power in the city of... Moscow
The Orthodox Church influenced the unification of ... Russia
Pope Urban gave a _____________ on the need to reclaiming the holy lands. Speech
The Crusaders lost Jerusalem to ... Saladin
Western Crusaders sacked the city of ... Constantinople
The Crusades ended up weakening the Pope and nobles but strengthened the power of ... Monarchs (Kings)
The Crusades also stimulated trade, weakened the Byzantine Empire and left the ___________, ______________, & _______________ bitter. (1) Christians, (2) Jews, & (3) Muslims
The Mongol armies invaded Russia, China and Muslim states in Asia, _______________ cities and the countryside. Destroying
Constantinople fell to the _____________ Turks in 1453. Ottoman
Constantinople (renamed Istanbul) became the capital of the... Ottoman Empire
The Black Death or the (_______________________) created a scarcity of labor due to a decline in population. Bubonic Plague
After the Black Death, towns were freed from __________ obligations, the church's influence declined and it disrupted trade. Feudal
Church scholars were some of the few people who could read or _________. Write
Church scholars worked in _____________ and translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin. Monasteries
Monks and other church scholars laid the foundation for the rise of higher education schools, or... Universities
The Crusades increased the demand for _____________________ products. Middle Eastern (Spices, Technology, etc)
The stimulated production of goods to trade in the Mid East encouraged the use of credit and ... Banking
The church did not like the merchants' use of ... Usury
The practice of usury, helped secularize northern... Europe
Letters of credit expanded the supply of money, new accounting and bookkeeping practices were introduced such as the use of ______________ numerals. Arabic
The Italian cities of Florence, Venice and Genoa served as centers of ... Trade
The Italian cities of Florence, Venice were initially independent ______________ governed as republics. City-states
Machiavelli authored the book called, The Prince
The book, THE PRINCE, supports absolute power of the ruler, was an early modern treatise on government, and advises one should be able to do _____________ when necessary. Evil
Medieval art and literature focused on the __________ and salvation. Church
Renaissance art and literature focused more on individuals and ... Worldly Matters (Secular)
Leonardo Da Vinci created the paintings called... (1) Mona Lisa & (2) The Last Supper
The artist, Michelangelo carved the statue of ___________ and painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. David
What celebrated the individual? Humanism
Humanism stimulated the study of classical Greek and Roman culture and was supported by wealthy... Patrons
Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported the ... Northern Renaissance
Renaissance thinkers merged ideas with those of Humanism and ... Christianity
Gutenberg created movable type ______________ and helped spread ideas such as the Gutenberg Bible. Printing Press
Erasmus, the Renaissance humanist, wrote the book_____________________ in 1511 CE. In Praise of Folly
The book,UTOPIA, was written in 1516 CE by... Sir Thomas More
Created by: csdavis