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ch.16

TermDefinition
caravel A sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind
Henry the navigator Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast
Vasco da Gama Portuguese navigator in 1497 - 1499 he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, sailing for Spain who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, thought he died on the journey
circumnavigate to proceed completely around
Sir Francis Drake English admiral; he rounded the tip of south america and explored the west coast. he ended up heading west to return to England thus becoming the second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson English navigator; he sailed form the dutch East India Company and discovered the Hudson River in Present day New York
encomienda Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the native Americans Christianity
Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador; from 1519 to 1521 he defeated the Aztec empire conquering mexico for Spain
conquistador a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Moctezuma II Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520 he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortes and his army conquered the empire. he was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador; conqueror of Peru founder of Lima Peru from 1530 to 1533 he conquered the Inca empire
Atahualpa last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spain he was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over
viceroys officials who ruled Spain´s american empire
Bartolomé de Las Casas Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves
Treaty of Tordesillas the agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north south line dividing their territory in the Americas
Columbian Exchange the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus
mercantillism an economic system used from about the 1500s to the 1700s that held that the nations power was directly related to their wealth
balance of trade the difference in value in what a nation imports and exports in a period of time
subsidies grants of money
capitalism economic system in which most business are owned privately owned
joint-stock companies businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and loses
plantations large farms that specialized in growing one type of crop for profit
triangular trade Trading network lasting from the 1600s to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa
Middle passage the name for voyages that bought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic ocean to north america and the west indies
Oldaudah Equiano African American abolitionist; he was enslaved African who was eventually freed became a leader of the abolitionist movement and wrote the interesting narrative of the life of Oldaudah Equiano
African Diaspora the dispersal o f people of African decent throughout the Americas and western Europe due to the slave trade
Created by: patriciacruz