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MT Ch. 7

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch. 7

bones provide protection & support, make movement possible, produce blood cells, & store & realease calcium & phosphorus
osteoblasts create bone
osteocytes mature bone cells (have limited life span)
osteoclasts (remodeling) constanly breaking them down & reabsorbing the remaining material
ossification/osteogenesis process of bone formation
axial skeleton cranial bones, facial bones, vertebral column, thoracic cage, & hyoid bone
appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, & arms & legs
pectoral girdle connects the arms to the thoracic cage)
pelvic girdle connects the legs to the axial skeleton
CRANIAL BONES (skull) frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, & ethmoid bone
FACIAL BONES are nasal bones, zygomatic bones, vomer, maxilla, mandible, nasal conchae (or turbinates), & lacrimal bones
mandible lower jaw
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mandible unites w/temporal bone of the skull to form the only movable bone of the skull
VERTEBRAL COLUMN (vertebrae) illustrates the spine which consists of 33 bones
cervical vetebrae (C1-C7) below the skull consists 7 vetebrae
thoracic (dorsal) vetebrae (T1-T12/D1-D12) below cervical next to chest area which consists 12 vetebrae
lumbar vetebrae (L1-L5) below thoraric which is near lower back which consists 5 vetebrae
sacrum (SAY-krum) (S1-S5) below the lumbar which consists of 5 fused bones
coccyx (KOCK-sicks) tailbone below sacrum which consists of 4 fused bones
intervertebral discs (made of cartilage) b/w the vertebrae are little round shock absorbes (absorb much of the shock of movement & jumping)
annulus fibrosus (AN-you-lus figh-BROH-sus) tough outer layer
nucleus pulposus (NEW-klee-us pul-POH-sus) soft, gel-like inner portion
slipped or herniated disc common & painful condition when some of the gel material pushes the ourter layer out of its normal posistion, nerves are pinched
THORACIC CAGE (chest, torso) consists of sternum (breastbone), 12 pairs of ribs, costal cartilage, & thoracic vertebrae
frontal bone forehead
temporal bones temples
zygoma cheek
maxilla upper jaw
appendicular skeleton pectoral & pelvic girdle, upper & lower extremity
PECTORAL GIRDLE clavicles & scapulae
clavicles (KLAV-ih-kulz) collarbones
scapulae (SKAP-you-lee) shoulder blades
PELVIC GIRDLE consists of 2 coxal bones, joined anteriorly at the symphysis pubis & posteriorly at the sacrum
coxal (KOCKS-al) 2 hips
ea hip contains 3 segments that become fused ilium (ILL-ee-um), ischium (ISS-kee-um), & pubis (PEW-bis)
acetabulum (as-eh-TAB-you-lum) hip socket (allows the head of the femur to fit into it, forming the hip joint)
symphysis (SIM-fih-sis) pubis right & left hip bones form a circle by joining with each other anteriorly
sacroiliac (say-kroh-ILL-ee-ack) right & left hip bones form by joining each other posteriorly
UPPER EXTREMITY (arm and hand) consists of the humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, & phalanges
humerus upper arm
ulna & radius forearm (lower arm)
olecranon (oh-LEK-rah-non) process elbow
carpal (have 8 bones arranged in 2 rows) wrist
metacarpals hand bones (number I - IV)
phalanges (fah-LAN-jeez) fingers & toes
interphalangeal joints (IP joints) finger bones that are connected
LOWER EXTREMITY (leg & foot) femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, malleolus, metatarsals, phalanges, & calcaneus
femur (FEE-mur) thighbone
patella (pah-TEL-ah) knee
tibia (TIB-ee-ah) shin
fibula (FIB-you-lah) is the lateral bone of the lower leg
metatarsals (met-ah-TAHR-salz) foot bones
calcaneus heel
joint union b/w two bones
joint structures consist of articular cartilage, joint cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, & joint capsule
radiocarpal joint b/w the radius & the wrist
iliofemoral joint b/w the ilium & the femur
kyph/o humpback
lord/o swayback
ped/o child
scoli/o curved
tempor/o temporal bone
-porosis porous
-oma tumor; mass
myeloma (my-el-LOH-mah) benign tumor of the bone marrow
oste/o bone
osteomyelitis (oss-tee-oh-my-eh-LYE-tis) inflammation of bone & bone marrow
osteitis (os-tee-EYE-tis) inflammatin of the bone
chondr/o cartilage
osteochondritis (os-tee-oh-kon-DRYE-tis) inflammation of bone & cartilage
-cyte cell
osteocyte (OS-tee-oh-sight) mature bone cell
osteoma (os-tee-OH-mah) benign tumor of bone
-tome instrument used to cut
osteotome (OS-tee-oh-tohm) instrument used to cut bone
-tomy process of cutting; incision
osteotomy (oss-tee-OT-oh-mee) process of cutting bone
-um structure
endo- within
endosteum (en-DOS-tee-um) inner lining of the shaft (long slender portion) of a long bone such as the tibia or ulna
peri- around
osse/o; oste/o bone
periosteum (per-ee-OS-te-um) the structure around the shaft of a long bone
1&2.) skull & facial bones (blank)
-al pertaining to
faci/o face
craniofacial pertaining to the skull & face
-plasty surgical repair or reconstruction
cranioplasty surgical repair of the skull
-tomy incision
craniotomy incision nto the skull
mandibul/o mandible; lower jaw
-ar pertaining to
mandibular pertaining to the lower jaw
tempor/o temporal bone
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pertaining to the joint b/w the temporal
maxill/o maxilla; upper jaw
maxillary pertaining to the upper jaw
3.) Thoracic Cage sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, & thoracic vertebrae
chondr/o cartilage
plasia- development; formation
a- no; not; inadequate
achondroplasia (ah-koh-droh-PLAY-zee-ah) inadequate cartilage formation, resulting in a type of dwarfism
-cyte cell
-oma tumor; mass
chondroma benign tumor of cartilage
cost/o rib
-al pertaining to
costochondral pertaining to ribs & cartilage
sub- under
subcostal pertaining to under the ribs
stern/o sternum; breastbone
costosternal pertaining to the ribs & sternum
4.) Vertebrae include cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, & coccygeal bones
Created by: ltravis