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APWH Q1 Vocab Eval

Persian Empire A major empire than extended from the Iranian plateau to incorporate the Middle East from Egypt to India, flourished from around 550 – 33o B.C.E.
Susa An imperial center/ city of the Persian Empire
Persepolis Ancient capital of the Persian Empire
Hellenes Term for what the Greeks called themselves
Aegean Sea Body of water between what is now Greece & Turkey
Mediterranean Sea Major waterway South of Europe North of Africa West of Turkey & Saudi Arabia
Athenian democracy A radical form of direct democracy in which much of the free male population of Athens had the franchise (right to vote) and officeholders were chosen by lot.
Greco-Persian Wars TWO major Persian invasions of Greece in which the Persians were defeated on both land and sea
Hellenistic Era Period from 323 – 30 BCE in which Greek culture spread wisely in Eurasia and North Africa – in the kingdoms ruled by Alexander’s political
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon (356 – 323 BCE) Conqueror of the Persian Empire and part of NW India
Augustus The great-nephew & adopted son of Julius Caesar who emerged as sole ruler of the Roman state at the end of an extended period of Civil War
Pax Romana Term typically used to denote the stability and prosperity of the early Roman Empire, esp. in the first and second centuries CE
Qin Shihuangdi Literally, “the first emperor from the Qin” Ruled from 221 – 210 BCE Forcibly reunited China AND established a strong and repressive state
Yellow Sea Water body off NE China Coast Between Northern China & the Korean Peninsula
Trung Trac A Vietnamese woman from an aristocratic military family who led an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against China around 40 CE following the execution of her husband.
Han Dynasty Dynasty that ruled China (206 BCE – 220 CE) Created a durable state based on Shihuandhi’s state-building achievement
Mauryan Empire Major empire from 322 – 185BCE Encompassed most of India
Arabian Sea Water body west of India South of Pakistan East of the Arabian Peninsula
Bay of Bengal Body of water to the east of India South of Bangladesh West of Myanmar
Ashoka Most famous ruler of the Mauryan Empire ruled 268 – 232 BCE Converted to Buddhism Tried to rule peacefully AND with tolerance
Venus figurines Female figurines with exaggerated body parts. They were made in the paleolithic time period and out of natural materials like bones, stones, and clay. Their purpose is shrouded in mystery as well a why they’re found around the world.
Dreamtime It is the view and the belief that everything that happens on Earth is an echo of the events that happened to the gods long ago. They believe that these gods created the world by crisscrossing the land.
Clovis Culture A culture that was founded in North America around 13,000 years ago and abruptly ended after the Ice Age. The Clovis lived by bodies of water and ate many small animals, wild plants and even some larger animals like bison and mammoths.
megafaunal extinction An extinction of a large (referring to size) animal species .
Austronesian migrations It was a human migration that started 3,500 years ago in Bismarck, the Solomon Island and in the Philippines. It was the last human migration and it was a unique one as it happened mostly by boat.
“the original affluent society” It is a term a scholar once used to describe the ancient hunting and gathering society because they needed little and had plenty of free time.
shamans People who were believed to be more skilled in dealing with the spirit world than the average person. They only worked part-time as a Shaman and when they did they were said to have entered a trance while doing it.
trance dance A dance in which Shamans performed in order to connect with the spirit world.
Paleolithic settling down It was when Paleolithic people settled down in more permanent settlements and stopped their nomadic ways. Abundance of food at the time caused populations to rise.
Gobekli Tepe It is a ceremonial site created 11,600 years ago in Turkey and discovered in 1994. It is made of T-shaped limestone pillars weighing up to 16 tons and positioned in about 20 circles. Constructed by Hunter-gatherers.
Fertile Crescent A small area in the Middle-East where many plants and animals were first domesticated. It was the first area to experience a fully agricultural society.
teosinte It is a type of mountain grass and the early ancestor of corn. Thousands of years of domestication made teosinte into the Corn we know of today. It is said to be “man’s greatest feat of genetic engineering.”
diffusion It is the spread of word and agricultural products to neighboring societies. This caused societies who heard about agriculture, and who received products from agriculture, to also use agriculture themselves.
Bantu migration It is the migration of the Bantu speaking people otherwise known as the Bantus, that started from southern Nigeria and Cameroon around 3,000 B.C.E.
Ishi He was the last member of the Yahi, who was found In 1911. Ishi was found mourning and soon was taken care of by scholars. He spent the rest of his life in a Museum happily demonstrating many skills to visitors and telling his story to scientists.
Banpo An ancient settlement founded about 7,000 years and discovered in 1953, it is located near Xian, China. About 500 people lived in Banpo and it had 45 houses and over 200 pits for the storage of grain, also they made decorated pots, vases, and dishes.
“secondary products revolution” It was a group of technological changes during 4,000 B.C.E. revolving around the secondary uses some domesticated animals had. Some of these secondary uses included milking a cow, shearing a sheep, using manure as a fertilizer and riding large animals.
pastoral societies They are societies that follow and depend on their livestock for food; they moved with the seasons as their animals needed to go to different places to get their food. These societies were often found in Africa and Asia.
Catalhuyuk It is a large and ancient agricultural village in Turkey where men and women were considered equal and could do any job they want. People would travel across rooftops instead of the ground to get to place to place.
Chiefdoms Chiefdoms were societies led under one leader, with the role being passed down from generation to generation. Chiefs won the loyalty of the people instead of forcing it.
Norte Chico/ Caral A 30-mile long area located in the Central Peruvian Coast, with rivers formed by snowmelt as its main water source. Norte Chico contains twenty-five ancient cities including its largest one, Caral.
Indus Valley civilization The Indus valley civilization was created in Pakistan 3,000 B.C.E. and by 2,000 B.C.E. it became one of the largest and most organized civilizations at the time. While having a written language it had no main leader or king confusing scholars to this day.
Central Asian/ Oxus civilization The Oxus civilization was located in Central Asia in the Oxus River Valley after 2,200 B.C.E. It was a defensive city made up of fortified walls, fences and gates all protecting its people and large temples.
Olmec civilization A civilization that was formed in 1200 B.C.E. near the modern-day city of Veracruz, Mexico. The Olmec arose from a group of rivalring chiefdoms, where they then raised corn, beans and squash for food.
Uruk With fortified walls and a population of 50,000 by 3,000 B.C.E. Uruk was the largest city in Mesopotamia. The city’s main attraction was the temple on top of the large stepped pyramid in the center of the city, there were many other smaller temples too.
Mohenjo Daro/ Harappa An ancient city formed near the Indus River around 2,000 B.C.E. a similar city named Harappa was close by. Mohenjo Daro had a population of 40,000 people, some of which lived in complex and multi-storied homes.
Epic of Gilgamesh An ancient poem about Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu and the epic tales they had together in Mesopotamia.
Code of Hammurabi A set of rules created by Hammurabi and made for civilization. The rules heavily emphasized the importance of equality and hierarchy in society.
Patriarchy The belief that males are superior to females, therefore, making them more powerful, important, and have more rights than them. This belief was common among many early civilizations, causing women to be the ones to take care of the children.
rise of the state States were areas in a civilization where many officials were stationed to be in control of the people and their security. The state was organized by the King of the civilization and it is the main reason why civilizations were able to stick together.
Egypt: “the gift of the Nile” The belief that the Pharaoh and his connection to the gods was the reason for the constant predictable flood of the Nile. This flood was a gift because it provided water and fertile soil allowing Egyptians to have a good harvest.
Paneb An Egyptian who lived in 1,300 B.C.E. Paneb was violent and instead of using his job to help prepare for the Pharaoh's tomb he helped himself and prepared his own tomb. He lost his job after a long complaint from Amennakht.
Nubia South of ancient Egypt was the smaller civilization of Nubia, a frequent trading partner, it was an ally at times and at others an enemy. Like Egypt, Nubia was also located by the Nile and even shared some of it’s gods.
quipu An Inca accounting technique involving many knotted cords. These knots varied in color, type, length, and location on the Quipu.
cuneiform The Sumerian writing system and perhaps the world’s first writing system. It worked by placing symbols on clay to represent many ideas, objects and more; it was mainly used for economic exchanges.
hieroglyphs Hieroglyphs were the ancient Egyptian writing system that used symbols to express many words and consonants. It was originally for business use only but eventually, it expanded for many other purposes.
oracle bones The early Chinese writing system, and ancestor to modern Chinese writing, was used by carving pictures into shells or bones to represent images and to predict the future.
ziggurat A large stepped pyramid created in many areas of the world in ancient times.
Mesopotamia An area in the middle east where ancient civilizations, languages, and some of the first domesticated plants and animals appeared.
civilization A term used in history to describe a settlement that has cities and states in it or to describe a pattern of culture between two or more regions.
Legalism strict adherence, or the principle of strict adherence, to law or prescription, especially to the letter rather than the spirit.
Qin Shihuangdi Founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born prince of the Qin state
Confucius A Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Analects A collection of short literary or philosophical extracts.
Confucianism the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Ban Zhao A Chinese historian, philosopher, and politician. She was the first known female Chinese historian.
Daoism A religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. It was founded by Laozi.
Vedas A large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent. They are the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
Upanishads A part of the Veda, that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism.
Siddhartha Gautama Also known as the Buddha, was a monk, mendicant, and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Theravada/ Mahayana The most ancient branch of Buddhism still extant today, and the one that preserved the direct teachings of Buddha.
Bhagavad Gita A 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata
Zoroastrianism One of the world's oldest religions that remains active. It is a monotheistic faith.
Judaism The religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text.
Greek Rationalism Rationalism is a logical viewpoint that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge." This new and innovative form of thinking allowed scholars to distinguish knowledge from opinion
Socrates Plato and Aristotle The Big Three in Greek Philosophy. Much of Western philosophy finds its basis in the thoughts and teachings v
Jesus of Nazareth Sometimes referred to Christ or god, Jesus was a religious leader who became a central figure in Christianity
Saint Paul A christian missionary and author of several epistles in the New Testament, he is considered one of Jesus' apostle.
Church of the East The church of the Byzantine Empire, including the patriarchates of Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem
Perpetua a married noblewoman and mother of an infant she was nursing until she died at 22. She was put to death in Africa and she died as a martyr.
Meroe City in southern Nubia that was the center of Nubian civilization between 300 BCE and 100 C.E.
Axum Second wave era kingdom of East Africa, in present –day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia; flourished from 100 – 600 CE
The columns of Axum Dating back to the time Axum first encountered Christianity (300-500 CE), this column, measuring some seventy-nine feet tall, probably served as a funeral monument for the kingdom’s ancient rulers.
Nubia civilization A civilization that was at times Egypt's ally and at other times its Enemy. It was similar to Egypt but still had distinct properties of its own.
"Horn of Africa" A place in the African continent between Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.
Red Sea The saltiest body of water in the world, it is located between North-eastern Africa and the Middle-east.
Piye Ruler of Kush (r. 752 – 721 BCE) conquered Egypt reuniting it under his rule
Niger Valley Civilization Distinctive city-based civilization that was particularly noteworthy for its apparent lack of centralized state structures, having been organized instead in clusters of economically specialized settlements.
Mesoamerica A cultural region in the Americas from Mexico to Costa Rica. Many pre-columbian and then Spanish colonization took place here.
Maya Civilization A major civilization of Mesoamerica Flourished from 250 - 900 CE
Teotihuacan The largest city of pre-Columbian America, with a population between 100,00o and 200,000 Seemingly built to a plan in the Valley of Mexico Flourished between 300 – 600 CE during which time it governed or influenced much of the surrounding region
Chavin Andean town that was the center of a large Peruvian religious movement from about 900 – 200 BCE
Moche An important regional civilization of Peru, governed by warrior-priests Flourished from around 100 – 800 CE
Wari and Tiwanaku Two states that flourished between 400 – 1000 C.E. in the highlands of modern day Bolivia and Peru. At their height, they possessed urban capitals with populations in the tens of thousands and productive agricultural systems.
Bantu expansion Term used to describe the gradual migration of these people from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of eastern and southern Africa
Ancestral veneration as expressed by luba Ancestral veneration is an extended respect for elders even elevating them to divine status at times.
Chaco Phenomenon A major process of settlement and societal organization that occurred in the period 860 – 1130 C.E. Society is notable for its settlement in large pueblos and for the building of hundreds of miles of roads (the purpose of which is unknown.)
Moundbuilders Members of any of a number of cultures that developed east of the Mississippi River in what is now the United States and that are distinguished by their large earthen mounds, built during the period of 2000 BCE – 1250 CE
Cahokia Was the dominant center of an important Mississippi Valley mound-building culture Located near present-day St. Louis, Missouri Flourished from about 900 – 1250 CE
Algonquin and Iroquoian The two main woodland Indian tribes that lived in North East part of America.
Created by: 22denney