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AP Human Geo Ch.5

AP Human Geography Chapter 5

how many languages are spoken today not including dialects over 6,000
how many languages are spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone 1,500+
how many languages are spoken in New Guinea alone 400+
how many languages are spoken in Europe alone 100+
how many threatened or endangered languages are there 2,000+
if someone is a native speaker of a language, what does that mean that language is their primary language
if someone is a non-native speaker of a language, what does that mean it is not their primary language
how many people speak Mandarin Chinese 1.3 Billion
how many people speak Spanish 442 million
how many people speak English 378 million
how many people speak Arabic 315 million
how many people speak Hindi 260 million
how many people speak Bengali 243 million
how many people speak Portuguese 223 million
how many people speak Russian 154 million
how many people speak Japanese 128 million
how many people speak Lahnda/ Punjabi 119 million
what are the top 5 languages with the most speakers Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, English, Arabic, Hindi
organized system of spoken words by which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension language
a group of languages descended from a single, older tongue language families
what makes up a language family similar vocabulary, similar grammar, similar sounds
the earlier, older language protolanguage
which language family is the most widely spoken indo-european
what language family, branch and group is English in family: Indo-European branch: Germanic group: Modern English
where is Latin dominant throughout Roman Empire
what are the 5 romance languages italian, spanish, french, portuguese, romanian
why are they named the romance languages they descended from Rome
what are the 4 germanic languages english, german, dutch, scandinavian
what is the indo-european hearth Turkey (Anatolia)
how did english diffuse throughout the world by hundreds of years of British Colonialism. Brought to New World by British colonies in 1600s
what is the world pattern of languages migration, conquests, settlement, colonization, spreading, disappearing, domination, numbers, territory
how many Amerindian Tongues are there 1,000-2,000
what is domination of a language called cultural imperialism
what is the dominator of a language called assimilation
people who speak a common language speech community
accepted standards of syntax (sentence structure), vocabulary, and pronunciation standard language
who sets a standard language leaders
what are standard (official) languages used for literature, government, economy, trade, and education
recognizable speech variants dialects
what are elements of a dialect vocabulary, rhythm, pronunciation, speed
denote social class and educational level social dialects/ socialect
what were dialects in America settled by immigrants from MANY places; travel and interaction was frequent
what 3 dialects emerged in America Northern, Midland, and Southern
as English diffuses to different countries, each location develops its own _________________ dialect. Due to the mixing of various _______________________ and its ______________________ from England. unique; people; isolation This is why American's sound different than the British
the study of the character and spatial pattern of dialects and languages linguistic geography
the outer limit of a language's territory- boundary between language groups isogloss
able to speak 2 languages bilingualism
able to speak more than 2 languages multilingualism
an amalgamation (combination) of languages, usually a simplified form of one and borrowings from another pidgin
is pidgin the mother tongue of any speaker no
what is pidgin adequate to express basic ideas
what 3 things does pidgin have specific function, highly simplified grammar, sharply reduced vocabulary
evolves from an indigenous/ native group's language mixed with a conquering group's language creole
what 2 languages make up Afrikaans African and Dutch
is creole the native tongue of its speakers yes
what 2 languages make up creole french west african and french
what to languages make up franglais french and english
what 2 languages make up spanglish spanish and english
what 2 languages make up denglish german and english
how many native speakers does english have today 375 million
how many ESL (English Second Language) speakers does english have today 375 million
how many total people speak english today 750 million
how many countries is english the official language of 60
what percentage of internet web pages worldwide are in english 78%
an established language used habitually for communication by people whose native tongues are mutually incomprehensible lingua franca
what was the lingua franca in Ancient times (300 BC- 500 AD) greek
what was the lingua franca in Early Middle Ages latin
what was the lingua franca in Late Middle Ages french
what was the lingua franca in modern times english
english is the official language of several countries, meaning it is the language used by ______________ and __________________ business and government
having multiple official languages polyglot state
what are examples of polyglot states belgium, switzerland, canada
what does switzerland divide their country into cantons
why are over 400 languages in existence today considered extinct only a few elderly people know them
a languages survival is dependent upon the _____________________ and _____________________ strength of its speakers political and military
what happens when people get conquered their language goes away
when did Hebrew dinimish around the 4th century
what happened when Israel was established Jews from all over the world moved there
what 2 languages were chosen as Israel's official languages Hebrew and Arabic
what did having 2 official languages in Israel do and how many new words did they have to create helped unify the people and they created 4,000 new words
the Celt's language was diminished because they lacked _________________ military power
it is being revived by Britain's 1988 Educational Act which forces students to learn _________________ if they live in Wales Welsh
unrelated to any other language and is not attached to a language family isolated language
existed before Indo-European language and was preserved due to isolation in the Spanish Pyrenees mountains Basque
most widely spoken language isolate with over 78 million speakers Korean
Created by: dancer2024
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