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Chapter 2

Agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total number of arable land
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area
Census A complete enumeration of a population
Crude birth rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Crude death rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of of natural increase, and higher population
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Doubling time The number of years needed to double population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Elderly support ratio The number of working-age people divided by the number of persons 65 and older
Epidemiology The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality
Industrial revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed in the process of manufacturing goods
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for every 1000 live births in a society
Life expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
Maternal mortality rate The annual number of female deaths per 100000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management
Medical revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries; medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of deaths in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer, healthier lives
Natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Overpopulation A situation in which the number of people living in the area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Pandemic A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high portion of the population
Physiological density The number of people per unit of arable land
Population pyramid A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
Sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
Created by: Yedani