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Enlightment quiz

vocab

TermDefinition
Enlightenment a time of optimism and possibility from the late 1600s to the late 1700s; also called the Age of Reason
Natural law rules of conduct discoverable by reason; used by Enlightenment thinkers to better understand social, economic, and political problems; used to study human behavior and solve the problems of society
Thomas Hobbes 17th century English philosopher lived in Civil War & thought people r cruel, greedy, selfish; liked powerful government; outlined views in Leviathan. thought powerful government made orderly society. absolute monarchy could impose order &compel obedience
Social contract an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher; developed political and economic theories during the Enlightenment. He wrote Two Treatises on Government in which he declared that people have a right to rebel against governments that do not protect their natural rights.
Natural right right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property
Philosophe French for "philosopher"; French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) French jurist and political philosopher; he explored democratic theories of government. He proposed a government divided into three branches and greatly influenced the United States Constitution.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau French political philosopher thought people r good; innocence corrupted by evils, especially unfair distribution of property; wrote Social Contract; felt society placed many limitations on behavior-control should be minimal &by freely elected government
Voltaire (1694-1778) French philosopher and author; known for his satire; was a supporter of Deism, the idea that God was no longer involved with the universe after creating it; advocated a tolerant approach to religion
Laissez-faire policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish economist; he became the leading advocate of laissez-faire economics and is considered by some to be the "father of modern economics"; wrote the first true text on economics, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776
Censorship restriction on access to ideas and information
Enlightened despots the absolute monarchs in 18th century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
Salons gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment
Baroque ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s
Rococo personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s that featured designs with the shapes of leaves, shells, and flowers.
Revolution radical change, far-reaching effects
George III King of England for 60 years, starting in 1760; ruled during the American Revolution
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) American statesman; he was a philosopher, scientist, inventor, writer, publisher, first U.S. postmaster, and member of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
George Washington (1732-1799) First president of the United States; he commanded the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and served as a representative to the Continental Congress
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) American statesman; third president of the United States; he was a member of two Continental Congresses, chairman of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration's main author and one of its signers
James Madison (1751-1836) American statesman; he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and the fourth president of the United States; he is known as "the father of the Constitution."
Popular sovereignty basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed
Federal republic government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states
Estates General legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in pre-revolutionary France.
Tennis Court Oath famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France
Bastille fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it on July 14, 1789.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity basic principles of the French Revolution; served as a rally cry / slogan of the French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen a document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution - liberty, equality, and fraternity
Louis XVI (1754-1793) King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution; deposed by the National Convention, he was executed by guillotine
Marie-Antoinette (1755-1793) Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and disliked by many French citizens; was found guilty of treason and guillotined
Guillotine a device used during the French Revolution for beheading people
Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) leading figure of the French Revolution; known for his intense dedication to the Revolution; became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time
Reign of Terror a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d' etat in 1799; led French armies in conquering much of Europe and placed his relatives in positions of power; defeated at the Battle of Waterloo; was exiled on the island of Elba
Created by: 22repack