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Global Vocab '18-'19

argument an explanation for an opinion that uses evidence to support it
evidence information that can be used for a specific purpose
audience the person or group of people that a message is for
author person or group who created a source
claim an opinion supported by evidence
endure last for a long time
enduring issue a challenge or problem that has been debated or discussed across time
history an account of the past constructed from evidence
limitation something that prevents something; restriction
purpose why something was created; reason why something was done
point of view an opinion, a claim
primary source materials from the time period being studied
significant important
secondary source sources based on the work of other authors. A source created after the time of the event
source something historians use to learn about the past
peninsula a piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides
isthmus a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land masses
strait a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
plateau a large area of flat land that is elevated high above sea level
bay a broad inlet of the sea where the land curves inward
gulf a deep inlet of the sea almost surrounded by land, with a narrow mouth
archipelago a group of islands
glacier a slow moving mass of ice
cape part of an island chain that sticks out into the ocean
latitude distance north or south of the equator
longitute distance east or west of the equator
hemisphere half of the earth
compass rose a drawing that shows the orientation of north, south, east, and west on a map
equator an imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole
prime meridian 0 degrees longitude
physical map a map that shows geographic features
political map a map that shows boundaries, countries, cities, etc
5 Themes of Geography location, place, human environment interaction, movement, and regions
hunting and gathering killing animals and collecting fruits, vegetables and nuts for food
settlements newly established places where people have come to live
revolution a very great change from things in the past
adapt to change
agriculture farming
nomad a person who moves from place to place
river valley able to produce good crops
culture beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people
social classes grouping people based on wealth, religion, ethnicity, etc
urban relating to a city
nomadic moving from place to place with no permanent home
crops plants grown for a farm
domesticate to tame; to bring plants or animals under human control
paleolithic old stone age
sedentary living in a fixed location
irrigation supplying water to crops
cultural diffusion the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
neolithic new stone age
subsistence farming farming only enough food to feed one's family
Code of Hammurabi the first written laws
civilization an advanced state of development of a society
fertile crescent Mesopotamia; the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
city-state an independent state made up of a city and the land around it
cuneiform a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets
Epic of Gilgamesh a poem from ancient Mesopotamia, one of the earliest surviving major works of literature
Euphrates River a river in eastern Turkey and Iraq. It joins the Tigris River
Hammurabi Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)
Tigris River a river in Turkey and Iraq that joins the Euphrates River
ziggurat a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
empire a group of once separate areas ruled by a single person or government
geographic features naturally occurring landform, body of water, or ecosystem
unify to bring together as a single unit
government the group of people that has power to make laws and important decisions for a community, state, or nation
dynasty a series of rulers from the same family or group
achievement an outstanding thing done successfully typically by effort, courage, or skill
wealth a lot of valuable possessions or money
collapse to break down, or become weak
invade to enter like an enemy
belief system a set of ideas and practices that help explain the origins of life, what happens after people die, and how to live a good life
trade to exchange goods and services for another
power the ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or what happens
Polytheism there are many gods
Hinduism polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices in India
Caste a social class determined by how one lived in a previous life
Caste System a rigid class system in Hinduism
Bhagavad Gita a Hindu holy book that explains Hindu beliefs
Rig Veda religious Hindu texts
Reincarnation the rebirth of the soul after death
Enlightenment/ Nirvana/ Moksha the state of release from reincarnation
Karma the sum of a person's actions
Dharma one's duty according to their caste
Buddhism belief system founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India
Siddhartha Gautama founder of Buddhism
Eightfold Path the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering in Buddhism
Four Noble Truths Buddhist belief that life is suffering, what causes suffering, and how to end suffering
Silk Roads a network of trade routes that stretched from China to the Mediterranean Sea
Golden Age period of great wealth, prosperity, stability, and cultural and scientific achievement
Created by: migliorej