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chapter 16

expansion, exploration, and encounters

1. Who was Prince Henry? A Portuguese supporter of exploration.
2. Who was Bartolomeu Dias? A Portuguese explorer who rounded the tip of Africa.
3. Who was Vasco de Gama An explorer who gave Portugal a direct sea route to India.
4. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? The treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them.
5. What was the Dutch East India Company? The Dutch company that established and directed trade throughout Asia.
6. What were the two main reasons for European exploration? The two reasons were the desire for wealth and the desire to spread Christianity.
7. How did Spain and Portugal solve their differences over claims to new lands? Spain and Portugal made the Treaty of Tordesillas, which split the lands between them.
8. How did the Dutch and English become Indian Ocean trading powers? The Dutch and English set up East India companies to control and defend their trade.
9. What technological advances made the age of exploration possible? Caravel with its triangular sails that allowed it to sail against wind, astrolabe,and a magnetic compass.
10. What were some immediate and some long-term outcome of Columbia's voyage? Immediate: increased tensions between Spain and Portugal;long term: opened up the Americas to European colonization
11. Explain the causes of African slavery. Beginning around 1500, European colonists in the Americas who needed cheap labor began using enslaved Africans on plantations and farms.
12. What was triangular trade? Why was it important? Triangular trade was the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas. It was important for trade.
13. Explain the Middle Passage. The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South American was known as the Middle Passage. It was considered the middle leg for the transatlantic trade triangle.
14. Why was slavery in the Americas such a harsh life? Explain. Slaves were auctioned off the the highest bidder. They work in mines or fields, and as domestic servants.
15. Discuss the consequences/results of slave trade. They lost generations of their fittest members. Families were torn apart and never reunited.
16. What was the Columbian Exchange? Explain. The Columbian Exchange imported important foods, such as corn and potatoes. The Columbian Exchange brought foods from the Old World to the New World, such as bananas, black-eyed peas, and yams. Cattles, pigs, and horses were brought by the Europeans.
17. Explain the concept of capitalism. An economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit.
18. What was a joint stock company? and Why was a joint stock company important? Company in which people pooled their wealth for a common purpose. It was important because it was a good business idea.
19. Define the concept of mercantilism. Economic policy of increasing wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and selling more goods than are bought
20. Explain the difference between a favorable and unfavorable balance of trade. Favorable Condition resulting from selling more goods than are bought. Unfavorable Condition resulting from selling less goods than are bought.
Created by: reesem