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Rome and Christendom

Unit II Final Exam Study Cards

Equestrians Economic/Business - Bankers, Tax Collectors, Exporters, High Ranking Military (Calvary)
Commons Military/Skilled Labor - : Artisans, Merchants, Small Farmers, Foot Soldier
Slaves Non-Citizens/Low Skill Labor - All undesirable Jobs
Free People Non-Citizens/Semi-skilled Labor - Freed Slaves, Craftsmen, Midwives, Traders, Foreigners.
Senators Political/Government, Judges, Lawyers, Consuls, Praetors, etc.
Senators Controlled government
Senators Could run for political office (and did!)
Equestrians Conducted business that was forbidden to the senators
Equestrians Could run for political office (but usually didn't)
Commons Citizens who could run for political office of Tribune
Commons Bulk of the infantry (foot soldiers)
Free People Could NOT run for political office
Free People Limited rights (not full citizen) - often foreign born
Slaves No rights
Slaves Considered Property
Trajan Was the first non-Italian (Spanish) born emperor; He was officially declared by the Roman Senate as "optimus princepts" (the best ruler); He led the greatest military expansion of the Roman Empire and oversaw various building and social programs.
Hadrian Cousin of Trajan, he became emperor after Trajan's death; is known for stopping expansion of the empire through military force and warfare.
Diocletian Rose through the ranks of the military to take the role of emperor after a series of assassinations. He restored structure to the government after some civil unrest by dividing the empire into two halves - and eastern half and a western half.
Marcus Aurelius Along with his brother Lucius Verus, was named to follow Hadrian as co-emperors. He became sole emperor after the death of his brother about eight years later. and named one of the 5 good emperors.
Marcus Aurelius He became sole emperor after the death of his brother about eight years later. and named one of the 5 good emperors.
Trajan He tried to help the poor, created schools, gave farmers back land that was taken from them. When he died, the Roman Empire is thought to be at its height.
T/F: Women were allowed to be part of politics or government and could even become lawyers or judges. False: Women were not to leave the house.
T/F: Poor children were sent to public schools. False: They were taught at home.
T/F: The poor folk cooked on open fires outside. True
T/F: Most of the Roman gods/goddesses were "borrowed" from other cultures such as the Greeks and the Egyptians. True
T/F: Public baths were a popular hangout for locals to catch up on gossip and politics True
T/F: Farm life in Ancient Rome was very hard and most of the labor was done by slaves on large farms. True
T/F: In the early days of the Republic, women could petition to divorce their husbands, if he had other girlfriends, but men could not divorce their wives for any reason. False
T/F: Some wealthy families hired private tutors for their children. True
T/F: Thermopolias were the roman version of fast food where people ate on the run. Pizza was a common food found there. True
T/F: The Romans tolerated most religions from people they conquered and even had temples to gods from other cultures. True
T/F: "Bread and Circuses" was a popular term used that meant what we would call dinner & entertainment. True
T/F: Most farms were small, but on larger ones called villas, slaves did most of the hard labor. True
T/F: A father had no say over his own children. He had to defer to the will of his wife in all matters regarding the family and children. False: Mothers had little say over their own children.
T/F: Books were written on leaves and rolled up. False: Books were written on scrolls and rolled up.
T/F: The poor ate foods such as fried grubs, mice cooked in honey, roasted parrots, jellyfish, and snails dipped in milk. False: The poor ate simple meals of fish, porridge and vegetables.
T/F: Each Roman home had an alter where they prayed to Mars, the god of war, who is known as the patron. False: They prayed to any favorite god or goddess.
T/F: Romans also enjoyed Gladiator games in the streets and at the Colosseum. True
T/F: Commonly grown foods were grain, grapes (for wine), and olives. True
T/F: Women married in their late twenties to ensure that they were healthy and mature enough to have children. False: Women married very young, usually as soon as they were able to bear children.
T/F: Paper (scrolls) was very expensive so children wrote on wax tablets with a pointed stick. True
T/F: Poor ate meals that consisted of honey covered mice and snails in milk. False: The poor ate simple meals of fish, porridge and vegetables.
T/F: To stay in good favor with their gods, the Romans made offerings and frequent human sacrifices. True
T/F: Circus Maximus was a popular chariot racing stadium holding over 20,000 people. Romans went there to be entertained. True
T/F: The farmers produced much of the food for Rome and other cities. True
T/F: Women gave birth at hospitals, but death during childbirth was very common. False: Women gave birth at home.
T/F: All children school started around age 7 and stopped around age 11. False: Most children went to school from 7 to around age 11.
T/F: Markets offered a variety of food choices in fruits, meats, and fish. True
T/F: Festivals and Holy Days (holidays) were held throughout the year to honor various gods/goddesses. True
T/F: The public showed their approval of a Gladiator by giving a thumbs up or thumbs down. If a losing Gladiator received a thumbs up from the emperor, he was killed. True
T/F: Wealthy teens were often the labor force for farms. False: Poor teens were often the labor force for farms.
T/F: Girls might continue schooling with tutors, but boys needed to learn how to be in the military. False: Boys may continue to learn with a tutor, but girls had to learn how to care for the household.
T/F: Teenagers were expected to entertain guests at dinner parties by playing music or reciting poetry. True
T/F: Eventually emperors saw themselves as gods and wanted to have offerings made in their honor at family altars and in public temples. True
T/F: Both men and women fought as gladiators. True
T/F: Gladiators were generally slaves and criminals. True
T/F: The Year 500 CE is widely accepted as the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire. False: The year 476 CE is widely accepted as the fall of Rome.
T/F: Emperor Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the western empire, is driven from Rome by invaders. True
T/F: There is one singular cause that led to the collapse/fall of the Roman Empire: barbarian invasions. False: Many causes led to the collapse of the Roman Empire.
T/F: The Eastern Empire (Byzantium) continues for another 100 years. False: The Byzantium Empire lasted another 1000 years.
T/F: The Roman Empire continues to influence the world today. True
Monotheism is: the belief in one single, all-knowing, creator God.
The holy book of the Christian faith is called the Bible.
Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth is the main prophet and thought to be: the son of God.
The goal of Christianity is to live a life of _____ to please God. virtue
Do Christians generally believe in angels? Yes
Christianity grew out of which foundational religion? Judaism
According to Christian beliefs, Jesus was killed (crucified) by the Romans under the reign of which emperor? Tiberius
Christianity isn't openly tolerated/accepted in the Roman Empire until the reign of which Roman Emperor who is the first to convert to Christianity? Constantine
Christianity was not an openly tolerated religion during the Roman era, forcing members to worship in secret. They used the symbol to communicate with each other. Which symbol was used. Fish
The Christians refused to worship _____, making them targets for persecution forcing them to worship in secret. the emperor as god
Some Emperors openly killed Christians for sport, in _____, and made the scapegoats for political/social problems. gladiator rings
The Roman Emperor, Nero, blamed the Christians for _____ and killed over 2,000 starting the Great Fire of Rome
The Visigoths and other Germanic tribes continued to push the western borders in violation of treaties. Weakening Frontier
Unemployment was extremely high & Rome could not afford to continue to feed the poor. Social Problems
Rome could not afford to feed its military or its poor. Economic Problems
Rising unemployment meant a greater number of poor and homeless people needing assistance programs. Economic Problems
Rome never solved its problem of how to appoint new leadership. Political Instability
Each time a new emperor took power, new laws were introduced. Political Instability
Rome did not have the support of a weakening and under supplied military. Weakening Frontier
A long series of Roman Emperors were living short lives due to continued assassinations, most taking power for about a year. Political Instability
Many people simply refused to work because it was easier to not work and take from the government than to work and earn less. Economic Problems
Businesses were moving out of Rome because they were not earning enough money - with the businesses went the jobs. Social Problems
The military lacked strong leadership. Weakening Frontier
The widening gap between the rich and the poor meant a dissolving middle class. Economic Problems
What are Romulus and Remus most famous for? Founding the city of Rome
Who is Romulus and Remus' mother? Rhea Silva
Who first cared for the boys when they were abandoned? A she-wolf
What did Romulus and Remus first disagree on? What hill to establish their new kingdom on
What hill did Romulus want to establish the city on? Palatine Hill
How did Remus die? Romulus killed him when Remus made fun of his wall
Who was the father of the twins? Mars
How did Rome get its name? Romulus named the city after himself
Where were the boys abandoned? In a basket on the Tiber River
Who is considered to be the first king of Rome? Romulus
Reflects Stoic ideals like duty and virtue, fairness and common sense, equal treatment and presumption of innocence. Roman laws
Appian Way is still visited and walked on. Roads
Based on realistic forms. Sculptural Styles
Can be found in churches and government buildings Mosaic
1/3 of people in the world follow this. Christianity
Similar systems exist today (citizens elect members and members pass laws, address the needs of the people). Representative Government
More than half of English words are based on this. Latin
Christianity A religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus.
Clovis Leader of the Franks.
Republic Power rests with the citizens.
Justinian I Ruler of the Eastern Empire with his wife, Theodora.
Augustus "Divine One"
Justinian Code Legal code prepared under the direction of the Byzantinian emperor.
Empire A group of different cultures or territories led by a single all-powerful leader
Schism An official split between two groups.
Constantine the Roman emperor who ended the persecution of Christians.
Related to the Christian church that developed in the Byzantine Empire and is not under the authority of the pope. Roman Catholic
Byzantine Empire The Eastern Roman Empire, ruled from Constantinople.
Roman Catholic Related to the Christian church of the West under the authority of the pope.
emperor The ruler of an empire.
Created by: mrsnorris