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Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Abiotic Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
Acculturation The process of changes in culture that result from the meeting of two groups, each of which retains distinct culture features
Assimilation The price by which a group's cultural features are altered to resemble those of another more dominant group
Atmosphere The thin layer of gases surrounding earth
Behavioral geography The study of the psychological basis for individual human actions in space
Biosphere All living organisms on earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
Biotic Compose of living organisms
Cartography The science of making maps
Citizen science Scientific research by amateur scientist
Climate The long-term average weather condition at a particular location
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Connection The relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Conservation The sustainable management of a natural resource
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural landscape An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Culture The body of customary belief, social form, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay The diminished importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution The arrangement of something across earth's surface
Ecology The scientific study of ecosystems
Ecosystem A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact
Environmental determinism A nineteenth and twentieth century approach to the study of geography; argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in physical sciences Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process
Formal region (uniform region) An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional region (nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic information science (GIScience) The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
Geographic information system (GIS) A computer system that stores, organizes, analysis, and displays geographic data
Geotagging Identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates
Global positioning system (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Humanistic geography The study of different ways that individuals form ideas about place and give those places symbolic meanings
Hydrosphere All of the water on and near Earth's surface
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180 longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. Moving east the clock moves back 24 hr. Moving west the clock moves forward 24 hr.
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0 degrees)
Lithosphere Earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0 degrees)
Map A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
Map scale The relationship between the size of an object and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
Mashup A map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping service
Mental map A representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place that contains personal impressions of what is in the place and where the place is located
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
Network A chain of communication that connects places
Nonrenewable resource Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Participatory GIS (PGIS) Community-based mapping, representing local knowledge and information
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a particular area
Place A specific point on Earth, distinguished by a particular characteristic
Polder Land that the Dutch have created by draining water from an area
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Poststructuralist geography The study of space as the product of ideologies or value systems of ruling elites
Preservation The maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible
Prime meridian The meridian, designed as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Projection A system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Relocation diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Renewable resource Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of the Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to another place
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Spatial association The relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature
Stimulus diffusion The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Sustainability The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
Syncretism The combining of elements of two groups into a new cultural feature
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Uneven development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular region (perceptual region) An area that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) Creation and dissemination of geographic data contributed voluntarily and for free by individuals
Created by: Yedani