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TermDefinition
bedouins Small groups of nomadic people in Arabia
Muhammad prophet of Islam whom Muslims recognize as Allah´s messenger to all humankind. His teachings form the basis of Islam
hegira Mohammad´s journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam A monotheistic whose prophet Muhammad and whose holy book is the Qur´an; the term means ¨achieving peace through surrender to god¨
Muslims followers of Islam
Qur´an the sacred text of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam behaviors and obligations that are common to all Muslims, which include the five daily prayers, the giving of alms, the requirement to fast, and the journey to Mecca, or the Hajj
mosque a building for Muslim Prayer
jihad "struggle for the faith¨; can be thought of as an individual or communal struggle; as the latter, the term embraces notions of defending the Muslim community and holy war
Abu Bakr first Muslim caliph; as a close companion and successor of Muhammad, he unified the restive Bedouin tribes of central Arabia into a strong fighting force that he led into Iraq and Syria
caliph ¨Successor of the Prophet¨; title given to the political and religious leader of Muslims
caliphate area ruled by a caliph
Umayyad first ruling dynasty over the Muslim caliphate
Sunnis ¨ people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)¨;the largest branch of Islam; the believers accepted the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad
Shia a branch of Islams whose adherents believe that the caliphate must go to a descendant of Muhammad particularly a member of the family of Ali
Sufis a branch of Islam emphasizing a personal, mystical connection with god
Abbasid dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad dynasty to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years the Abbasids maintained te unity of the caliphate and Islamic culture and civilization flourished
Harun al-Rashid Fifth Abbasid caliph ( ruled 786 to 809); under his rule; teh Abbasid dynasty reached its height and Islamic culture reached a flowering
astrolabe an instrument used to determine the position of heavenly bodies
Ibn Rushd Spanish-Arab philosopher; also known as Averroes; influenced by Aristotle, his best known writings explore the relationship between reason and faith
Ibn Sina Persian philosopher and physician ; also known as Avicenna; noted as a medical scholar, he contribute to other field of study
Ibn Khaldun Muslim writer; he wrote the Muqaddimah, which traced the history of the Muslim world
calligraphy the art of fine hand writing
minarets towers attached to the outside of a mosque, from where a crier calls Muslims to worship
Rumi Persian poet; he was a Sufi mystic an founded a Sufi order whose members use music and dancing in their rituals. His poems are still read by many today
Omar Khayyam Persian poet, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; author of The Rubaiyat, a collection of poems about a man who celebrate the simple pleasures of life
Created by: patriciacruz