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AP Human Unit 2

AP Human ch2&3

TermDefinition
Agricultural Density Number of farmers / arable land
Agricultural Revolution time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic Density the total number of people divided by the land area
Carrying Capacity the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation.
Census a complete count of a population that is taken every decade
Cold Lands land that is too cold to inhabit
Counter urbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Crude Birth Rate the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Demographic Transition the process of a change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population
Dependency Ratio the number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Doubling time the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Dry lands land that is too dry to inhabit
Ecumene portion of earth's surface that is occupied by permanent human settlement
Elderly Support Ratio the number of working-age people (15-64 y/o) divided by the number of persons 65 and older
Epidemiologic Transition the process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of he demographic transition
epidemiology the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population in a certain time
high lands few people live on highlands but when they do, it is to get away from the heat and go to more comfortable climates
industrial revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 births in a society
life expectancy the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
maternal mortality rate the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management
medical revolution medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improving the medical practices has eliminated the traditional causes of deaths in poorer countries
natural increase rate (NIR) the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
neo-malthusian believe there won't be enough resources in the future due to overpopulation. fixing problems would be family planning and birth control
overpopulation a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
pandemic disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
physiological density the number of people per unit of arable land
population pyramid a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population
Thomas Malthus A British economist that concluded that the rate of population was growing at a faster rate than agricultural productivity leading to over population.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
wet lands lands too wet to inhabit
zero population growth a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
brain drain large scale emigration by talented people
chain migration migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circulation short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that occur on a regular basis
counter urbanization net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
cyclical movement Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
desertification degradation of land, especially in semi-arid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. (semi-arid land degradation)
emigration migration from a location
forced migration permanent movement, usually compelled by cultural factors
guest workers a term once used for a worker who migrated to developed countries of Europe in search of higher paying jobs
immigration migrating to an area
Internally Displaced Person someone who has been forced to migrate due to similar political reasons as a refugee, but has not migrated across an international border
internal migration permanent movement within a particular country
International migration permanent movement from one country to another
Interregional migration permanent relocation from one region of a country to another
Intervening obstacle an environment or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intraregional migration permanent movement within one region of a country
migration a permanent move to another location
migration transition Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
mobility all types of movement from one location to another
net migration the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
periodic movement a longer period of time away from home. It is transhumance, based on seasons
pull factor factor that induces people to move to a new location
push factor factor that induces people to leave old residences.
quota established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
refugee people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
step migration migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
transhumance a seasonal periodic movement of pastorarists and their livestock between highland and lowland
unauthorized immigrants People who enter a country without proper documents, also known as undocumented immigrants.
voluntary migration when a a person migrates by choice
Created by: jasminalei