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APHG Population

Unit 2 Chapter 2 Population

TermDefinition
Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area
Census A complete enumeration of a population
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people alive in a society
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society's population as a combination of medical advances and economic development, affecting a population's desire and ability to control its own birth and death rates
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio The number of people under 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people in the workforce
Doubling Time The number of years it takes for an area's population to double
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Epidemiological transition The a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries' population change.
Epidemiology The branch of medical science that is concerned with identifying, fighting, and preventing disease.
Family Planning The practice of controlling the number and frequency of children conceived usually through the use of contraception or voluntary sterilization.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and drastically altered society
Infant Mortality Rate The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old per 1000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live given current social, medical, and economic conditions.
Medical Revolution Medical technology from Europe and North America that was used to eliminate many diseases in the developing world
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate (NIR=CBR-CDR)
One Child Policy Chinese policy used to control population growth which began in the 1980's and restricted families to having only one child.
Overpopulation A situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population Composition Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Population Density A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distribution Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live
Population Pyramid A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
Sex ratio The ratio of men to women
Standard of living Goods and services and their distribution within a population
Sterilization Any process that eliminates a person's ability to produce children
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in food production, which would lead to widespread famine and disease.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.
Zero population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Created by: slslozzy