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Renaissance and Refo

World history

Renaissance "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome; 1300 - 1650 CE
Humanism an intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements
Humanities study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome
Florence a city in the Tuscany region of northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance
Patron a person who provides financial support for the arts
Perspective artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a three-dimensional effect
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist; his interests and talents spanned numerous disciplines; painted the Mona Lisa
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 - 1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Raphael (1483 - 1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens
Donatello (1386 - 1466) Master of sculpture in both marble and bronze; one of the greatest of all Renaissance artists
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 - 1527) Italian political philosopher and statesman; he wrote The Prince, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics. He insisted that a ruler do whatever is necessary to succeed and that the ends would justify the means.
Baldassare Castiglione (1479 - 1529) Italian diplomat and writer; he wrote The Courtier, one of the most important books of the Renaissance, in which in delineates the rules and correct behaviors for a courtier to adopt in order to win favor from a ruler.
Johann Gutenberg (c. 1397 - 1468) German inventor and printer; he invented movable type. His first printed publication was a 1,282-page Bible.
Albrecht Durer (1471 - 1528) German painter, engraver, and theoretician; he combined Italian Renaissance techniques of realism and perspective with elements unique to the northern Renaissance, such as the use of oils in his painting
William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) English dramatist and poet; he is considered one of the greatest dramatists of all time and wrote such works as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Vernacular everyday language of ordinary people
Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (the Ninety-Five Theses) led to calls for reform and to the movement known as the Reformation.
Heresy an opinion that goes against the teachings of a church
Heretic a dissenter from established dogma
Indulgences pardons issued by the pope of the Roman Catholic Church that could reduce a soul's time in purgatory; from the 1100s to the 1500s, they could be purchased, which led to corruption.
Protestant Reformation a religious movement in the 1500s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches
Pope title given to the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Henry VIII (1491 - 1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532.
Scientific Revolution a transformation in European thought in the 1500s and 1600s that called for scientific observation, experimentation, and the questioning of traditional opinions
Scientific Method a method of inquiry that promotes observing, measuring, explaining, and verifying as a way to gain scientific knowledge
Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) English mathematician and natural philosopher; he discovered the law of gravity as well as laws on the physics of objects.
Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist; he discovered the law of motion of falling objects and invented the first working telescope; his discoveries put him into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543) Polish astronomer; he proposed the heliocentric, or sun-centered, theory of the universe.
Heliocentric theory scientific theory that has the sun as the center of the universe with the earth rotating around the sun
Jesuits members of a Catholic religious order, the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534
Inquisition institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics; especially active in Spain in the later 1400s and 1500s
Created by: 22repack