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AP Human Geo Ch.2

AP Human Geography Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
why is it important to project the future population to make sure we have enough resources necessary for everyone
why is it so difficult to project the future population you really don't know how many kids everyone is going to have in the future and you don't know how many people are going to die
what if population growth doesn't stop we won't have enough land for everyone and people are going to die
how many people are we projected to have in 300 years 1 trillion
how many people are we projected to have in 400 years 4 trillion
when did the world's population increase at a faster rate than ever before in history second half of the twentieth century
where is virtually all global population growth concentrated in less developed countries
more people are ________________ at this time than at any time in human history alive
the scientific study of population characteristics demography
what does overpopulation depend on regions balance between population and resources
the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people crude birth rate (CBR)
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people crude death rate (CDR)
the percentage in which a population grows in a year natural increase rate (NIR)
where is 2/3 of the world's population found East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, & Europe
what are the demographic characteristics of more developed countries high tech health cares, increased life expectancy, death rate is lower, have less children, better education, lower NIR, lower IMR
what are the demographic characteristics of less developed countries shorter life expectancy, CDR is higher, more children, poor education, no medicine or doctors, really bad health care, NIR is higher, higher IMR
a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex population pyramid
what side of the population pyramid are males always on? and females? males (left) females (right)
age group cohort
the number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force dependency ratio
what does a large percentage of children in Sub-Saharan Africa and other countries strain the ability of poorer countries to provide needed services
KNOW THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL
what are the birth and death rates and NIR doing in stage 1 of the DTM birth rates: very high death rates: very high NIR: stable or slow increase
what are the birth and death rates and NIR doing in stage 2 of the DTM birth rates: very high death rates: starts to decline rapidly NIR: very rapid increase
what are the birth and death rates and NIR doing in stage 3 of the DTM birth rates: starts to decline death rates: falling more slowly NIR: increase slows down
what are the birth and death rates and NIR doing in stage 4 of the DTM birth rates: low death rates: low NIR: stable or slow increase
what are the birth and death rates and NIR doing in stage 5 of the DTM birth rates: very low death rates: low NIR: slow decrease
describe the change in population of the World from the 1950s to present it went from under a billion to 7 billion people
why is rapid population growth a problem keeps going up we are going to become overpopulated
what did Thomas Malthus influence he influenced ideas about overpopulation in past and modern times
what did Malthus claim he claimed that population grows more rapidly than Earth's food supply
what did Malthus project the consequences would be based on the 1798 growth rates Today: 1 person, 1 unit of food 50 years: 4 persons, 3 units of food 100 years: 16 persons, 5 units of food
what 2 basic assumptions did Malthus base his theory on food is essential & humans have the basic urge to multiply
what are "positive checks" that have raised the death rate war, disease, famine, natural disasters
what are "preventative or negative checks" that have lowered the birth rate birth control, moral restraint, celibacy, abortion
what were the problems with Malthus's theory new technology to store and preserve food, Industrial Revolution, new agricultural practices, Green Revolution
when does the Green Revolution happen latter half of the 20th century
what things were created during the Green Revolution genetically modified crops, fertilizers, irrigation techniques, pesticides
why are contemporary geographers taking another look at Malthus's theory because of the unprecedented rates of natural increase in LCDs
what are Neo-Malthusians painting a frightening picture of a world in which billions of people are engaged in a desperate search for food and fuel
many LDCs have _______________________ their food production significantly in recent years, but they have _________________________ than ever before expanded;more poor people
what are 2 strategies that have been successful in reducing birth rates -distribution of contraceptives -emphasizes reliance on economic development
what is one approach to empowering women emphasizing improving local economic conditions
what would happen if more women were able to attend school they would learn employment skills, gain economic control of their live, make informed reproductive choices
with the survival of more infants assured what would women most likely choose to limit the number off children contraceptives
in less developed countries, __________________ for contraceptive devices is ____________________ than the available _________________ demand; greater; supply
what is China doing to decrease population growth have a one-child policy
which areas in China are more strict than others urban areas are more strict than rural areas
what can happen if you have a second kid without granted permission they can force sterilization or abortions
if you do receive permission to have a second child what must you do you must pay "fees" in the amount it would cost the state to provide for that child
what effects have happened because of the one child policy led to increase in infanticide and abortion which has led to an unbalanced male to female ratio
CBR at 1.7, it is ___________________ than the U.S. and are now experiencing a population _____________________ lower; decline
study of the dynamic of health and illness in population epidemiology
the shift in diseases as a country developes epidemiological transition model
what are a high level of infectious diseases associated with malnutrition, periodic famine, and poor environmental sanitation
what are a high level of chronic and degenerative diseases associated with urban-industrial life styles
diseases that belong to a certain area that are native and local endemic
when a disease begins to spread to a larger scale epidemic
when a disease jumps an ocean (Africa -> Europe) multiple continents pandemic
what is stage one of the ETM called Age of Pestilence & Famine
what is the life expectancy of stage 1 of the ETM less than 35
fatal epidemic diseases pestilence
what disease happened in 1347 that killed half of Europe's population Bubonic plague
what are high causes of deaths in stage 1 of the ETM animal and human attacks
what is less than 10% of deaths caused by in stage 1 of the ETM heart disease
what is the name of stage 2 of the ETM Age of Receding Pandemics
what are there improvements in in stage 2 of the ETM public health (water/sewage) and nutrition
what 2 things start to decline in stage 2 of the ETM infant mortality rate and pandemics (widespread diseases)
what increases in stage 2 of the ETM life expectancy
what disease is a big problem in developing countries during stage 2 of the ETM cholera
what is stage 3 of the ETM called Age of Degenerative and Human-made Diseases
what continues to improve in stage 3 of the ETM urbanization, public health, and nutrition
death from what 2 diseases declines in stage 3 of the ETM polio and measles
what is the life expectancy in stage 3 of the ETM less than 50
what starts to rise in stage 3 of the ETM man-made diseases
what are the causes of the rise of man-made diseases smoking & fattier diets
what is approximately 50% of deaths caused by during stage 3 of the ETM cancer & heart disease
what is stage 4 of the ETM called Age of Delayed Degenerative Disease
what 4 things improve in stage 4 of the ETM health care, diet, medicine, and education
what two causes of death are prevented or delayed in stage 4 of the ETM cancer & heart disease
what is the life expectancy in stage 4 of the ETM >65
what is the name of stage 5 of the ETM Return of Infectious Diseases
what happens in stage 5 of the ETM it is speculative- return to stage 1 diseases such as Malaria, TB, SARS, AIDS
why is stage 5 of the ETM speculative poverty, world-wide travel, evolution of microbes
disease causing bacteria microbes
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement ecumene
the total number of people divided by the total land area arithmetic density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is suitable for agriculture physiological density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land agricultural density
what is the NIR today 1.2%
when did the global NIR peak and when was it 2.2% in 1963
about how many people are being added to the world's population each year 82 million
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase doubling time
in what world regions is most growth occuring developing countries
the average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years total fertility rate
what is the global "average" total fertility rate 2.5
the shape of a population pyramid is primarily determined by what demographic rate number of people in different age groups
what age groups are categorized as "dependent" 0-14 and 65+
the number of males per 100 females in the population sex ratio
the demographic transition is a ______________________ with several ________________________ and every ______________________ is in one of those stages model; stages; country
how many countries are in stage 1 of the demographic transition model none
how many countries are in stages 2/3 of the demographic transition model majoriity
how many countries are in stage 4 of the demographic transition model few and few are likely to reach it in the future
where has Malthus's theory proven right fairly close on food production
in what ways was Malthus mistaken to pessimistic on population growth
how is Japan's population expected to change by 2050 Japan is expected to have a major decline in population
why is Japan expected to have a major decline in population Japan discourages immigration
why is Japan's population declining problematic for Japan they will face a severe shortage of workers
what would characterize a possible stage 5 of the DTM very low Crude Birth Rate, increasing Crude Death Rate, and a negative Natural Increase Rate
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition epidemiologic transition
the total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society infant mortality rate
the average number of years an individual can be expected to live given certain conditions life expectancy
how are these mortality rates distributed globally, in terms of developed and developing worlds countries that are not as developed have higher mortality rates than developed countries
compare and contrast reasons for variations in health care between developed and developing countries in developed countries they have better medical technology and medicine than LDCs, both have health care MDCs just put more money & attention to it than LDCs
what are reasons why the dry lands are inhospitable -too dry for farming -lack water to grow crops that could feed a population
what are reasons why the wet lands are inhospitable -combination of rain and heat rapidly depletes nutrients from soil -very high levels of rain and they are near the equator
what are reasons why the cold lands are inhospitable -covered with ice -ground is permanently frozen -unsuitable for growing crops
what are reasons why the high lands are inhospitable -steep slopes -snow covered slopes
identify the 2 strategies that have been successful in reducing birth rates and explain why they have been successful through education& health care-women stay in school longer, improved health care, IMR would decline, with more kids surviving women would have less kids through contraception- family planning programs, most effective for lowering birth rate
what were the views and theories of Thomas Malthus -believed that the population was growing more rapidly than food supply and would eventually we would run out of resources
what are the views and theories of Neo-Malthusians -the gap in population and resources is greater in some countries than even Malthus anticipated -world population growth is outstripping other resources not just food production
what are the views and theories of critics of Malthus resource depletion: believe that Malthusian beliefs are based on that the world's supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding population growth: disagree with Malthus that population growth is a problem
what is the first big break in the demographic transition and its cause sudden drop in the death rate caused by technological innovations
what is the second big break in the demographic transition and its cause the sudden drop in birth rate caused from changing social customs
what are India's population policies birth control devices have been distributed free,abortions were legalized in 1972, camps to perform sterilizations,birth-control programs became voluntary,family planning is emphasized in education, most dominant form of birth control is sterilization
what are China's population policies people receive free contraceptives,abortions,&sterilizations,if you wish to have 2 kids you have to pay a "family planning fee" to cover the cost of the government supporting another person
world population is very ___________________ distributed across Earth's surface and it can be compared to ____________________ distribution unevenly; climate
the portion of the Earth with permanent human settlement ecumene
the ecumene has expanded to cover most of the _______________ world's land area
what are the 4 sparsely populated areas dry areas, wet areas, cold areas, high areas
-too dry for farming -cover approximately 20% of Earth's land surface -generally lack sufficient water to grow crops dry areas
-receive very high levels of precipitation -primarily located near the equator -combination of rain and heat depletes nutrients from the soil, hindering agriculture wet areas
-much of the land near the north and south poles -perpetually covered with permafrost cold areas
-relatively few people live in mountains, but there are some significant exceptions in Latin America and Africa high areas
the largest cluster of inhabitants live here East Asia
1/5 of the world's people live in this region East Asia
5/6 of the people in this region live in China East Asia
Japan and South Korea's population is distributed differently and is not ________________________ uniform
more than _____________ of the Japanese and Koreans live in __________________ areas 3/4; urban
second-largest concentration; roughly 1/5 of the world's population South Asia
the world's second most populous country and contains more than _________________ of South Asia's population concentration India; 3/4
third-largest population cluster; 1/9 of the world's population lives in this region Europe
_______________________ of Europe's inhabitants live in cities 3/4
world's fourth-largest population cluster which is a series of islands Southeast Asia
13,677 islands make up what country Indonesia
what 2 countries make up the largest population concentration in the western hemisphere United States and Canada
what percentage of the world's population lives in the United States and Canada 2%
what percentage of the people in the United States and Canada are farmers less than 5%
where is another 2% of the world's population clustered West Africa
in which country is half of the 2% of the world's population in Africa located Nigeria
what do most people work in in Nigeria/West Africa agriculture
-the number of people per total land area -the highest densities are found in parts of Asia and Europe arithmetic density
-number of people per arable land area -measures the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society physiological density
-the largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support -most closely related to physiological density carrying capacity
CARRYING CAPACITY IS IMPORTANT AND WILL BE ON THE TEST!!
Still flip over!! Good luck on your test!! You'll do great! :)
Created by: dancer2024