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APHG Unit II Vocab

TermDefinition
Agricultural Density The number of farmers on a section of arable land.
Anti-Natalist Policies Government policies that discourage couples from having children
Arable Farmable
Arithmetic Density The number of total people on a section of land.
Asylum Moving to another country in hopes of being recognized as a refugee
Baby boom A period of high birth rates, usually occurring after wars
Baby bust A period of lower birth rates, usually occurs after a baby boom.
Birth deficit Term for when the crude death rate exceeds the crude birth rate
Brain drain The most talented and capable individuals leave a country
Carrying capacity The amount of people the land is capable of sustaining
Census An official count of a country's population
Chain migration Process where immigrants follow their friends or family to another place
Cohort A population group distinguished by a certain characteristic
Counter Migration The return of migrants to their country of origin
Crude Birth Rate The number of live births in a year per 1,000 people.
Crude Death Rate The number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people.
Demographic Transition A model that describes population change over time
Demography The study of populations and people
Dependent population Nonworking people age 0-14 and over 65
Dependency ratio Ratio of nonworking population versus the working population
Distance decay When something moves further from the source, the connection weakens
Doubling time The amount of time it takes for a population to double
Echo A period of high birth rates that occurs when children from a baby boom reach childbearing age
Ecumene The land on earth in which people live
Emigrants People who leave a country
Epidemiologic transition Causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology The study of diseases
Expansive population pyramid A population pyramid with a wide base, signalling a high number of births in a country
Forced migration Involuntary migration, usually caused by wars, political persecution, or natural disasters
Gravity Model of Migration A model that measures the interactions of cities or countries with regards to migration. Large cities attract high numbers of people. Small cities attract small numbers
Immigrants People who move into a country
Industrial Revolution Period between 1760 and 1820 marked by rapid improvements in technology and the processing of goods
Infant Mortality Rate Total numbers of deaths of children under 1 year of age in a population
Internally Displaced Person Someone who is forced to leave their home, but stays within their country of residence
Intervening obstacles Any force that limits human migration
Life expectancy The average amount of years a person is expected to live
Malthusian Theory Idea that the world's population will grow faster than the food supply, leading to famine and shortages of food
Medical Revolution Advances in medical technology that led to drop in crude death rate. Begun in Europe and North America and later diffused to Africa, South America, and Asia
Midlatitudes Area from 30-60 degrees north and south of the Equator, known for mild climates and good soil
Migration A permanent move to a new location
Natural Increase Rate Percentage by which the population grows in a year
Neo-Malthusians People concerned that the planet will run out of materials (fossil fuels, etc.). They no longer believe the earth will run out of food.
Overpopulation A situation in which there are too many people and not enough resources in a given area
Pandemic Outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
Physiological Density Number of people per unit of arable land
Population Distribution Where people are located in a given area
Population Density How crowded a given area is
Population Pyramid Method for measuring the age and sex of a given population
Potential Workforce People from 15-64 in a country's population, expected to be society's labor force
Pro-Natalist Policies Laws in a country that encourage people to have more children
Pull Factors Things that make people want to move into a country
Push Factors Things that make people want to move out of a country
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration A theory of migration that says migrants usually move short distances, migration goes step by step, migrants who move far will move to cities, and each migration current produces a counter-current
Refugees People forced to move from their country of residence to another country
Remittances Money migrants send back to their country of origin
Return Migration Migrants voluntarily move back to their country of origin
Sex ratio The number of men versus women in a given area
Stationary Population Pyramid A population pyramid with a narrow base, signalling lower birth rates and a low natural increase rate
Step Migration Migration that follows a series of stages
Total Fertility Rate The number of children a women is expected to have in her lifetime
Voluntary Migration Someone moves to another place because they choose to
Xenophobia Fear or dislike of foreigners
Zero Population Growth Term for when the population of a country stops growing and the natural increase rate is 0%
Created by: trisjohnson