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Terminology Chp 6

Second part

Immunoglobulins blind with specific antigen in the antigen-antibody response. they are secreted by plasma cells
plasma cell are specialized white blood cells that produce antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens.
Lymphocytes lymph/o means lymph cytes/ means cell white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells
B Cells B lymphocytes are effective against viruses and bacteria circulating in the blood /when a B cell is confronted with the antigen is transforms into a Plasma B cell
Dendritic Cells white blood cell that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections, when such a cell is found the dendritic cells grab, swallow, and internally break apart that captured antigen
T cells T lymphocytes contribute to the immune defense by coordinating immune defenses and by killing infected cells on contact /T cells produce interferon and lymphokines
interferon family of proteins whose specialty is fighting viruses by blowing or stopping their multiplication.
Lymphokines direct antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system / lymphokines attract macrophages ti the infected site and prepare them to attack
macrophage macro/ means large -phage / means a cell that eats white blood cell that surround and kills invading cells. They also remove dead cells
phagocyte phag/ means eat; or swallow cyte / means cell large white blood cells that can destroy substance such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis - to destroy, pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them
Complement group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form they them mark these foreigh invaders and attracts phagocytes to destroy the antigens
immunity is the state of being resistant to a specific disease.
Natural immunity passed from the mother to her fetus; last only a short time
passive immunity is passed from the mother to her child through her breast milk.
acquired immunity also known as active immunity is the production of antibodies against a specific antigen by th immune system either by contracting an infectious disease ; chickenpox, or by vaccination against a disease such as polio
Vaccination also known as immunization is preparation containing an antigen, consisting of whole or partial disease causing organisms which have been killed or weakend
allergic reaction occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
allergy also known as hypersensitivity is an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen
localized allergic response known as cellular response includes redness, itching, burning where the skin has come into contact with the allergen
systemic reaction or anaphylaxis shock is a severe response to an allergen; without medical care a patient could die
scratch test is a diagnostic test to identify common allergens such as; tree pollen, ragweed; swelling and itching indicate an allergic reaction
Antihistamines are medications to relieve or prevent the symptoms of types of allergies; hay fever etc
histamine is a substance produced by the body that causes itching sneezing, runny nose; allergic reaction
autoimmune disorder also known as autoimmune disease large group of diseases in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues; appears to be genetically transmitted and predominantly occurs in women during the childbearing years
immunodeficiency disorder happens when the immune system is compromised; weakened, reduced, absent, or not functioning properly
human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a blood borne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system; leaving the body at rish of developing many infections
opportunistic infections is caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans; but when the host is debilitated many opportunistic infections can develop
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome also known as AIDS is the most advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection
Kaposi's sarcoma This cancer cause patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, lining of mouth,nose,throat and other organs is an example of an opportunistic infection that is associated with HIV
Elisa blood test to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies
Western Blot blood test that produces more accurate results than the Elisa
Immunotherapy Immun/o/therapy is a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response
Synthetic Immunoglobulins is used a a postexposure preventive measure against certain viruses, example: rabies and some types of hepatitis / postexposure means the patient has been exposed to the virus.
Synthetic interferon used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, and some cancers
Monoclonal antibodies are any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells.
Pathogen is a microorganism that causes a disease in humans.
microorganism is a living organism that is so small it can be seen only with the aid of a microscope
Pathogenic means capable of producing disease
Bacteria are one=celled microscopic organisms
Bacilli are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria; tetanus is caused by bacillus/ tetanus is known as lockjaw
rickettsia is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas,ticks and mites; Rocky Mountain spotted fever rickettsia
spirochetes are spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement; lyme disease
Staphylococci are a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes; reside normally on the skin and mucous;
staphylococcus aureus is a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning / toxic shock can be fatal
streptococci they form a chain; many species are harmless; they causes strep throat, meningitis,
septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
antibiotic resistant bacteria known as the supper bug; develop when an antibiotic fails to kill all of the bacteria it targets
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus known as MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics
fungus is a simple parasitic organism also known as athlete's foot
Yeast is a type of Candidiasis is known as a yeast infection or thrush
parasite is a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism; malaria contracted by a mosquitoes
toxoplasmosis is most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces.
Viruses are very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells
Herpes zoster also known as shingles
infectious mononucleosis known as mono is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
measles is an acute, highly contagious infection caused by the rubeola virus and transmitted by respiratory droplets
mumps is an acute viral disease / swelling of the parotid glands (salivary glands)
rubella known as German measles it is a viral infection
MMR is a vaccination to prevent measles, mumps, rubella
rabies is an acute viral infection that is commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal.
varicella known as chickenpox is caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious
West Nile virus is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
cytomegalovirus cyt/o/megal/o/virus is a member of the herpes virus family; found in body fluids; silent infection; transmitted to baby from mother
antibiotics anti/bio/tic are medication that are capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms
bactericide bacteri / cide substance that causes the death of bacteria; antibiotics include penicillin's and cephalosporins
bacteriostatic bacteri/o/static is an agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria; tetracycline, sulfonamide and erythromycin
antifungal anti/fungal is an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
antiviral drug anti/viral is used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
Oncology onc/ology is the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer
tumor also known as neoplasm; is a growth of tissue that forms an abnormal mass
benign tumor is not life threatening; is a noncancerous growth;
myoma my/oma is a benign tumor made up of muscles tissue
malignant tumor is harmful capable of spreading to distant body sites
myocarcoma my/o/carc/oma is a malignant tumor derived form muscle tissue
angiogenesis angi/o/genesis this tumor supports its own blood supply
antiangiogenesis anti/angi/o/genesis is a form of treatment that disrupts this blood supply to the tumor
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissue
metastasize spreads from one place to another; moves form primary site and spreads to a secondary site
metastasis meta/stasis is a new cancer site that results from the spreading process
carcinoma carcin/oma is a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
carcinoma in situ describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues.
adenocarcinoma aden/o/carcin/oma is any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue.
sarcoma sarc/oma is a malignancy tumor that arises form connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, liquid tissues
hard tissue sarcomas arise from bone or cartilage; bone, pelvis,knee example: osteoscarcoma is a malignant tumor of the bone
soft tissue sarcomas 2.arises from tissues from muscle, connective tissues; tendons,blood,lymphatic vessels, nerves and fat; synovial sarcoma is a malignant tumor of the tissue surrounding the synovial joint
liquid tissue sarcomas arise from blood and lymph; example is leukemia
staging is the process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed
lymphoma lymph/oma is a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues
professional palpation of the breast is performed to feel the texture, size, and consitency of the breast
mammography mamm/o/graphy radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors cells
surgical biopsy bi/opsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
needle breast biopsy is a technique in which an x-ray guided needle is use to remove small samples of tissue from the breast
sentinel-node biopsy sentinel node is the first lymph node to come into contact with cancer cells
lymph mode dissection is a surgical procedure in which all of the lymph noes in a major group are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer
lumpectomy is the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of normal tissue
mastectomy mast/ectomy is the surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple
modified radical mastectomy is the surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes
radical mastectomy is the surgical removal of an entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues
chemotherapy is the use of chemical agents and drugs in combination's selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues
chemoprevention is the use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs or vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer or to reduce the risk of recurring cancer
antineopalstic anti/ne/o/plast/ic is medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells
cyotoxic drugs are used for immumosuppression and chemotherapy
radiation therapy is used in the treatment of some cancers, goal is to destroy the cancer while sparing healthy tissues
teletherapy tele/therapy is radiation administered at a distance from the body
Created by: cameronslc