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Absolute Monarchs

Rule by divine right Monarchs believed they were God's chosen representatives on earth
Charles V Known as Holy Roman Emperor; wanted all to be Catholic; declared Luther an outlaw
Philip II Ruled during Golden Age of Spain; devout Catholic; launched Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada Fleet of Spanish ships that attempted to invade England
Most important reason Spain declined in the 1600s Held on to feudalism
French Protestants Huguenots
Belief of French monarchs One King, One Law, One Religion
Henry IV Converts to Catholicism in order to become King
Edict of Nantes Issued by Henry IV to guarantee religious tolerance for Protestants
Louis XIII Ruler of France who moved against Huguenots, weakened power of nobles and involved France in Thirty Years War
Louis XIV Most powerful ruler of France; known as Sun King; built Versailles, revoked Edict of Nantes
Louis XVI French king who was overthrown and beheaded during French Revolution
Henry VIII King of England; Act of Supremacy named him head of the Church of England
Mary I Queen of England; married Philip II of Spain; persecuted Protestants; Bloody Mary
Elizabeth I Queen of England; established Protestantism in England; defeated Spanish Armada
James I King of England; didn't like Puritans, but published English version of Bible
Charles I King of England; forced to sign Petition of Rights to limit power, but then ignored it; English Civil War; found guilty for treason and executed
Cromwell Lord protector of England; abolished monarchy and Parliament and established a commonwealth; promoted Puritan morality
Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan; argued that people needed an absolute monarch to tell them how to live because people are naturally selfish and fearful
Charles II Restored monarchy to England; Restoration; passed writ of habeas corpus
writ of habeas corpus Guarantees rights to people accused of crimes
James II Catholic King of England; dissolved Parliament; replaced during Glorious Revolution
William and Mary Established a constitutional monarchy; Parliament passed Bill of Rights to limit royal power
Ivan IV or Ivan the Terrible Czar of Russia; seized power from boyars; had private army who killed those who questioned his decisions
Peter I or Peter the Great Westernized Russia; began social reform; built St. Petersburg
Catherine II or Catherine the Great Married Peter III, but had him killed in order to rule; added Alaska as a Russian territory
Created by: karen.pharr