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H&P chest and lungs

what does the diaphragm do in respiration moves down and increases thoracic space in inspiration
what do the internal intercostals do in respiration decrease transverse chest diameter in expiration
what do the external intercostals do in respiration increase anteroposterior chest diameter in inspiration
what are the inspiratory muscles diaphragm, external intercostals, scalenes, and SCM
what are the expiratory muscles internal intercostals, rectus abdominus
the right lung has 3 lobes and is higher than the left (b/c of the liver)
the left lung has 2 lobes and a lingula
at what level is the apex of each lung located above the 1st rib
how long is the trachea 10 cm
the right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical (and branches into 3 segments)
what divides the respiratory tract into upper and lower trachea
vessels, nerves, and the bronchi enter the lung through the hilum
ventilation exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli
diffusion exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveolar air and blood in capillaries
circulation transport of O2 and CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation
what symptoms would prompt a thorough exam of the chest and lungs cough, SOB/difficulty breathing, chest pain
what is orthopnea difficulty breathing when supine
WOB work of breathing
what do you look for in the initial survey of chest and lungs respiratory rate, WOB, retractions, using accessory muscles, cyanosis (lips, nails), and stridor or wheezing
stridor is an upper airway sound (narrowing)high pitchedusually inspiratory
wheezing is a lower airway soundhigh pitchedusually expiratory
decreased fremitus could indicate emphysema, pulmonary edema
increased fremitus could indicate consolidation, solid mass
crepitus is caused by air in the subcutaneous tissue
friction rub is palpable, grating vibration
expected finding for percussion on the posterior chest resonance- loud intensity with low pitch
how many areas of auscultation and percussion on posterior chest 14 areas (7 on each side), do symmetrically
3 adventitious or extra breath sounds crackles (rales), rhonchii, wheezes
crackles discontinuous, inspiration, not cleared by coughing
rhonchii continuous, fog horn or snoring sound, clear with coughing
wheezes continuous, high pitched (tea kettle), heard bilaterally in asthma and unilaterally in aspiration of a foreign body
egophony E heard as A
bronchophony 99 sounds loud and clear
pectoriloquy whipered sounds are clear
how many locations of percussion and auscultation on anterior chest 12 (6 on each side)
"normal" diaphragmatic excursion is 3-5 cm
Created by: gls8377