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Some hallmarks of conditions

Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly Marfan’s
Aschoff Bodies Rheumatic fever
Auer Rods Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
Autosplenectomy Sickle cell anemia: switch a glu  val in  chain; Low O2  sickling; Aplastic crisis w/ B19 (Parvovirus ssDNA) infection; Salmonella osteomyelitis; Vaso-occlusive painful crisises; Hydroxyurea as Txt ( HbF) & Bone marrow transplant
Babinski UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein Multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda); Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
Birbeck Granules Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater Chronic Bronchitis (at least 3 months for at least 2 years of ecessive mucus secretion & chronic recurrent productive cough)
Boot-Shaped Heart Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard’s Nodes Osteoarthritis (proximal IP joint of the fingers)
Boutonniere’s Deformity Rheumatoid arthritis flex proximal & extend distal IP joints
Brown Tumor Hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots Down’s
Call-Exner Bodies Granulosa cell tumor: associated w/ endometrial hyperplasia & carcinoma ; Granuloma-Theca cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy Chagas’ Disease
Chancre 1* Syphilis
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad Multiple sclerosis = nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech
Charcot-Leyden Crystals Bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing Cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts Endometriosis
Chvostek’s Sign Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s Triangle Osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata 2* Syphilis; New coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel
Cotton Wool Spots HTN; Aka, cytoid bodies seen w/ SLE (yellowish cotton wool fundal lesions)
Councilman Bodies Dying hepatocytes – HepB
Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule Rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum Klebsiella
Curschmann’s Spirals Bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra Parkinson’s
Donovan Bodies Granuloma inguinale (STD)
Eburnation Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis Marfan’s
Erythema Chronicum Migrans Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver Alcoholism
Ferruginous Bodies Asbestosis - & Iron laden
Ghon Focus / Complex Tuberculosis (1* & 2*, respectively)
Glitter Cells Acute Pyelonephritis
Gower’s Maneuver Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
Heberden’s Nodes Osteoarthritis (distal IP joint of the fingers)
Heinz Bodies G6PDH Deficiency
Heterophil Antibodies Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hirano Bodies Alzheimer’s
Hypersegmented PMNs Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs Iron-deficiency anemia or  Thalassemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2 to rapid lysis
Joint Mice Osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing Acidosis / Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Keratin Pearls Squamous Cell CA of skin (Actinic Keratosis is a precursor)
Keyser-Fleischer Ring Wilson’s
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules Diabetic nephropathy: Nodular Glomerulosclerosis nodules of mesangial matrix
Koilocytes HPV 6 & 11 (condyloma acuminatum - benign) and HPV 16 & 18 (malignant association)
Koplik Spots Measles
Lewy Bodies Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
Lines of Zahn Arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) = pigmented iris hamartomas
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis – prototype of nephritic syndrome
Mallory Bodies Alcoholic hepatitis
McBurney’s Sign Appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies Malakoplakia - lesion on bladder due to macros & calcospherites (M-G Bodies): usually due to E. Coli
Monoclonal Antibody Spike Multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA); MGUS
Myxedema Hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies Rabies
Neuritic Plaques Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary Tangles Alzheimer’s
Non-pitting Edema Myxedema; Anthrax Toxin
Notching of Ribs Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver CHF = causing congested liver
Owls Eye Cells CMV ; Reed Sternburg Cells (Hodkins Lymphoma); Aschoff cells seen w/ Rheumatic Fever
Painless Jaundice Pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus Rheumatoid arthritis, also see morning stiffnes that  w/ joint use, HLA-DR4
Pautrier’s Microabscesses Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Sezary
Philadelphia Chromosome CML
Pick Bodies Pick’s Disease
2 types of COPD Pink Puffer – Type A: Emphysema; Blue Bloater – Type B: Bronchitis; Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Podagra Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign Tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid; Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary; Meningioma; Mesothelioma
Pseudohypertrophy Seen w/ Duchenne muscular dystrophy @ the claf muscles, due to  fat
Punched-Out Bone Lesions Multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles 2 Syphilis; RMSF; Coxsackie virus infection: Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease
Red Morning Urine Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. You would use Ham’s test to confirm.
Reed-Sternberg Cells Hodgkin’s Disease
Reid Index Increased Chronic bronchitis = d ratio of bronchial gland to bronchial wall thickness
Reinke Crystals Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation Multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound LR Shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD); Mitral Regurg; LV Failure
S4 Heart Sound Pulmonary Stenosis; Pulmonary HTN
Schwartzman Reaction Neisseria meningitidis (impressive rash with bugs)
Smith Antigen SLE (also anti-dsDNA) ; Malar Rash, Wire loop kidney lesions, Joint pain, False (+) syphilis test (VDRL) ; 90% 14-45 yo females; Also seen w/ use of INH; Procainamide; Hydralazine = SLE-like syndrome
Soap Bubble on X-Ray Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli Membranous glomerulonephritis = Nephrotic syndrome
Spike = basement membrane material & Dome = immune complex deposits (IgG orC3)
String Sign on X-ray Crohn’s - bowel wall thickening
Target Cells Thalassemia in  Thalassemia w/ no  gene: Hydrops Fetalis & Intrauterine death associations = HbBarts
Tendinous Xanthomas Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney Chronic pyelonephritis
Tophi Gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli Membranoproliferative GN: Nephritic syndrome – basement membrane is duplicated into 2 layers
Trousseau’s Sign Visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis); Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm); These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.
Virchow’s Node Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells Measles
WBC Casts Pyelonephritis
Whipple’s Triad CNS disfunction – Hypoglycemic episodes – glu injection reverses CNS Sympt’s
Wire Loop Glomeruli Lupus nephropathy, type IV (diffuse proliferative form)
High AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum 0NTD (Spina Bifida); multiple gestation; fetal demise; Anencephaly
High Uric Acid Gout; Lesch Nyhan; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
“Ground Glass” on chest x-ray (Hyaline) Due to Pneumocystis carinii; Seen w/ Atelectasia
Honey Combing of the lung Seen w/ Asbestosis (a restrictive lung disease)
Crescents Goodpastures syndrome (pneumonia w/ hemoptysis & rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis)
Linear Ig Deposits Goodpastures syndrome
45 Degree Branch Points Aspergillosis
PAS(+) Dutcher Bodies Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia = IgM = Hyperviscosity
“Ground Glass” in Abdomen(Hyaline) Seen in the hepatocytes of healthy carriers of HBsAg in liver biopsies
“Signet Ring” Cells Cells that replace the ovaries, due to Krukenberg’s tumor that has metastasized from the stomach
Ground Glass Appearance (Hyaline) Seen w/ Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy oligodendrocytes; Nuclei seen in Papillary CA of the thyroid (malignant)
Congo Red Shows amyloid deposition in plaques & vascular walls
Meningiomas & Progesterone Some meningiomas have Progesterone receptors = rapid growth in pregnancy can occur
Tuberous Sclerosis Triad Seizures; Mental retardation; Leukoderma (congenital facial white spots or macules): angiofibromas
Cowdry A Inclusions Seen w/ Herpes Simplex Encephalitis – in oligodendroglia
Devic’s Syndrome “Neuromyelitis Optica”; A variant of multiple sclerosis: rapid demyelination of the optic nerve & spinal cord w/ paraplegia
c-erb B2 Breast Cancer association
Foster-Kennedy Syndrome A tumor causing blindness & loss of smell w/ papilloedema
Hoffman’s Sign Flicking of the middle finger’s nail
Red Nucleus Destruction Intention tremors of the arm
Ventral Spinocerebellar tr. Unconscious proprioception of lower extremities
Dorsal Spinocerebellar tr. Unconscious prorpioception & fine motor movements
Cuneocerebellar tr. Unconscious proprioception & fine motor movements of upper extremities
Dorsal Column Conscious proprioception of the body
Lateral Spinothalamic tr. Pain & Temperature sensation
Ventral Spinothalamic tr. Light touch perception
SVA Taste & Smell
GSE Muscles of the eye & of the tongue
SSA Vision; Hearing; Equilibrium
GVA Sensation of tongue; soft palate. Carotid Body & Sinus innervation
GVE Edinger Westphal = parasympathetic eye innervation; Gland innervation = secretions; Viscera
GSA Pain & temperature of face; Sensation of external ear
SVE Innervation of muscles of masticaiton, facial expressions, larynx & pharynx
LMN Lesion Werndig Hoffman (progressive infantile muscular atrophy); Poliomyelitis
Sensory Pathway Lesion Subacute Combined Degeneration = Friedrich’s Ataxia = B12 deficiency; Tabes Dorsalis (Neurosyphilis)
Both UMN & LMN Lesion ALS = Lou Gherig’s Disease
Both Sensory & Motor Lesion Brown Sequard; Anterior Spinal artery Occlusion
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Controls circadian rhythm
Ventromedial Nucleus Satiety center. Savage behavior & obesity when lesioned
Lateral Nucleus Induces eating. Starvation when lesioned
Arcuate Nucleus Releases PIF (dopa-ergic neurons)
Mamillary Body Can have hemorrhages as seen in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy
Acanthocytes RBSc w/ spiny projections. Seen in Abetalipoproteinemia.
Created by: Bijan39