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Test 2 Study Guide

Covers 11-14

What type of resistance are bacterial endospores? Highest Resistance
What are bacterial endospores for? Survival
What type of Microbes fall under Moderate Resistance? (Hint: There's 4) Protozoan cysts, fungal sexual spores, naked viruses, & resistant vegetative bacteria
What are naked viruses? (Hint: What is it that they do not have?) Viruses with no coat
What type of Microbes fall under Least Resistance? (Hint: There's 4) Most bacterial vegetative cells, fungal spores, enveloped viruses, yeasts
What are fungal sexual spores for? Reproduction
What does vegetative mean? Microbes are happy, reproduce, & at prime time in life
What does it mean for something to be sterilized? Free from ALL living things
T/F: Sterilization is achieved with heat. True, it is performed with heat.
What is a common process of sterilization? Autoclaving
What are chemicals that are used to sterilize called? Sterilants
What is disinfection used on? Objects
What does disinfection not kill? Bacterial endospores & viruses
T/F: Disinfection also remove toxins. Yes, it does.
What is the purposeful target of disinfectants? Vegetative pathogens
What are 3 common examples of disinfectants? 5% beach solution, boiling water, iodine solutions
What is sepsis? Growth of microorganisms in the blood or other body organs
What is antiseptic? The disinfection of living things
What are asepsis techniques used for? To avoid contamination
What is sanitization? Reduces contamination to safe levels for use or consumption
What are examples of sanitizers? Soap or detergent
What does it mean for something to be sanitary? The disinfection of what we intake (ex. food and water)
What does the suffix -cide mean? To kill
What is Sporicide? Destruction of bacterial endospores
What does the prefix Stasis and Static mean? To stand still, prevent multiplication
What is microbiostatic used for? Controlling microorganism growth
What can affect to microbial death? (Hint; There's 6) Number of microorganisms, level of resistance, temperature, pH, concentration and mode of action of agent
What are the 4 targets of antimicrobial agents? 1. Cell wall 2. Cell membrane 3. Protein & Nucleic Acid Synthesis 4. Protein Function
What is the cell wall made up of? Peptidoglycan
What are the 4 antimicrobial effects on Cell Wall? 1. Blocks its synthesis 2. Digests it 3. Breaks down its surface 4. Becomes fragile and lyses easily
What is the cell membrane made up of? Phospholipids
What is our "fences" in a cell? Cell membrane
How is the cell membrane disrupted? It looses its selective permeability
What type of surfactant disrupts membrane? Detergents
Antimicrobial effects what levels of Protein & Nucleic Acid Synthesis? Replication, Transcription, and Translation
Where does Replication, Transcription, and Translation occur in the following: DNA ↓ RNA ↓ Proteins DNA ----- Replication ↓ ----- Transcription RNA ↓ ----- Translation Proteins
How is Translation stoped in Protein & Nucleic Acid Synthesis? Binds to Ribosome
How is Transcription and Translation prevented in Protein & Nucleic Acid Synthesis? Binds irreversibly to DNA
What are proteins made up of? Amino Acids
What must a protein be in, in order to function properly? It's native state
What is the Antimicrobial effect on Proteins Function? Denatures proteins by breaking bonds of the secondary and tertiary
T/F: Elevated temperatures are microbicidal. True, they kill.
What is microbiostatic? What does it do to temperature, does it lower or elevate it? It lowers temperature to slow reproduction
What are two types of heat? Moist and dry heat
Which heat is more effective, moist or dry heat? Moist heat
How is moist heat effective? It denatures
How is dry heat effective? It removes water from organisms
What is an example of dry heat? Incineration or cremation
What does the autoclave use to raise the temperature? Pressurized steam
What is the most efficient pressure-temperature combination of sterilization? 15 psi which yields 121°C
What is pasteurization? Disinfects while still retaining flavor and nutritional value in liquids and food
What are some examples of where pasteurization is used? Milk, cheese, fruit juices
Is boiling water for disinfection or sterilization or both? Disinfection only
How long should you boil water to make disinfection most effective? 30 minutes
How does incineration work? Ignites and reduces microbes to ashes
What are dry ovens used for? Heat-resistant items that don't sterilize well with moist heat
What are the effects of cold temperatures on cultures and microbes? To slow growth
T/F: Cold kills most microbes. False, it preserves them but doesn't kill them.
What is the preservation of cultures and Microbes called? Microbiostatic
What occurs when a vegetative cell is desiccated? Dehydration of the cell - which means it controls the removal of water
Is radiation a physical method of control? Yes, it disrupts DNA/proteins
T/F: Filtration can be used as a physical method of control. Yes
What is HEPA? A form of filtration that uses high-efficiency particulate air for filter.
Can alcohols be used be as antimicrobial agents? Why? Yes, because it dissolves the membrane. (Loses structure)
T/F: Alcohol can destroy bacterial endospores. False, it destroys resistant vegetative forms.
What is alcohol more effective in inactivating, enveloped viruses or non-enveloped viruses? Why? Enveloped viruses, because they are made up of membrane and alcohol is most effective in compromising membrane.
What is a surfactants? A surface-active agent that forms a water-soluble interface
What type of detergent is more effective? Cationic or anionic? Cationic detergent
T/F: Soaps are strong microbicides. False, they are weak.
What helps soap gain germicidal value? When it's mixed with agents such as chlorhexidine or iodine
T/F: We have all undergone chemotherapy. True
What is chemotherapy? The use of chemical substances or drugs to treat or prevent disease.
What is the goal of antimicrobial chemotherapy? To destroy the infective agent without harming the host's cells
What cells are involved with cancer chemotherapy? Is the host harmed? Human cells vs. Human cells - host is harmed
What cells are involved with antimicrobial chemotherapy? Is the host harmed? Human cells vs. Microbial cells - host is NOT harmed
Define Chemotherapeutic drug. Any chemical used in the treatment, relief, or prophylaxis of a disease
Define Prophylaxis. Use of a drug to PREVENT imminent infection of a person at risk
Define Antimicrobial chemotherapy. The use of drugs to control infection
Define Antimicrobials. All-inclusive term for any antimicrobial drug, regardless of what type of microorganism it targets
Define Antibiotics. Substances produced by the NATURAL metabolic processes of some microorganisms—or created by scientists—that can inhibit or destroy microorganisms; generally, the term is used for drugs targeting bacteria and not other types of microbes
Define Semisynthetic drugs. Drugs that are CHEMICALLY MODIFIED in the laboratory
Define Synthetic drugs. Drugs produced entirely by chemical reactions within a laboratory setting
Define Narrow-spectrum (limited spectrum). Antimicrobials effective against a limited array of microbial types
Define Broad-spectrum (extended spectrum). Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types
What does selectively ("picky") toxic ("poison") mean? That is it toxic to the microbe but nontoxic to the host Human cells vs. Microbial cells
Do we want our antimicrobials drugs to be Microbicidal or Microbiostatic? Why? Microbicidal because we want it to kill instead of just slowing down production
T/F: Most antimicrobials drugs interfere with the function of enzymes. True
What is the ultimate goal of antimicrobials drugs in bacteria, fungi, or protozoa? Disrupt the cells processes or structures
What is the ultimate goal of antimicrobials drugs in viruses? Inhibit virus replication
What are the 5 targets of Anitmicrobials? 1. Cell wall 2. Cell membrane 3. DNA/RNA 4. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors acting on Ribosomes 5. Folic Acid Synthesis in the Cytoplasm
How do drugs affect bacterial Cell Walls? React with one or more enzyme that is required for the synthesis of new peptidoglycan
Are drugs that affect bacterial Cell Walls a good or great target? Why? GREAT - peptidoglycan is only found in bacteria (not human cells) so it is a great target because the pathogen is targeted without harming the host AKA us
What are the targets of Penicillin in relation to bacterial cell wall? Bacitracin or Vancomycin
How do drugs affect Nucleic Acid Synthesis? By affecting Mode of Action
Are drugs that affect Nucleic Acid Synthesis a good or great target? Why? GOOD because we also have DNA/RNA
What does Rifampin target? Transcription of DNA
What does Rifampin do? It binds to the RNA polymerase
What do gyrase inhibitors target? (CHECK CORRECTNESS) DNA Replication
What are some examples of gyrase (twisted) inhibitors? (CHECK CORRECTNESS) Nalidixic acid, Fluouroquinolones, or Ciprofloxacin
How do drugs affect Protein Synthesis? Inhibit translation by reacting with the ribosome-mRNA complex
What exactly is it that drugs affect in Protein Synthesis? Ribosomes
Are drugs that affect Nucleic Acid Synthesis a good or great target? Why? GREAT - because theres weight differences between the 2 classes (Prok - 70s , Euk - 80s) the drug is selectively toxic
What are the following examples of? Aminoglycosides Chloramphenicol Oxazolidinoes Tetracyclines Erythromycin Ribosome-mRNA complexes
What are Polymyxins used most commonly in? What does it target ? It is used in Triple Antibiotic Creams that are used topically to targets the cell membrane
Are drugs that affect bacterial Cell Membrane a good or great target? Why? Good target because we also have Cell Membranes
What is Folic acid used to make? DNA, RNA, and amino acids
What exactly is it that drugs target in Folic Acid Synthesis? Enzymes to stop the Folic Acid Synthesis
What type of drugs play as competitive inhibition in Folic Acid Synthesis? Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim
Are drugs that affect bacterial Folic Acid Synthesis a good or great target? Why? Good target because we also have synthesize folic acid
PABA ---E1---> B ---E2---> C ---E3---> Folic Acid Folic Acid Synthesis
Are the following examples of broad or narrow spectrum drugs? Tetracyclines Carbapenems Penicillins Sulfonamides Cephalosporins Streptomycin Broad spectrum drugs
Are the following examples of broad or narrow spectrum drugs? Isoiazid Tobramycin Polymyxin Narrow spectrum drugs
When treating fungal infections how does this affect the host? It is toxic to us because like fungal cells, we are also eukaryotic
What are the four main groups that treat fungal infections? Macrolide polyene antibiotics Griseofulvin Synthetic azoles Flucystosine
What does the anti-fungal drugs Macrolide polyene antibiotics do? Binds to fungal membrane-ergosterol to cause loss of selective permeability
What does the anti-fungal drugs Griseofulvin do? Prevents cell division a
What is Griseofulvin effective against? Ringworm
What does the anti-fungal drugs azoles do? Inhibit ergosterol synthesis
What are synthetic azoles for? Broad spectrum
What does the prefix Myco mean? Fungal
What are the synthetic azoles drug, Flucystosine, used for? Selected patients for AIDS-related mycoses
What are the synthetic azoles drug, Ketoconazole, used for? Cutaneous mycoses, vaginal and oral candidiasis, and some systemic mycoses
How are Ketoconazoles used? Orally and topically
What are the synthetic azoles drug, Clotrimazole & miconazole, used for? Skin, mouth, and vagina
How are Clotrimazoles & miconazoles used? Topically
Are anti-fungal drugs a good or great target? Why? Good target because like fungal cells, we are also eukaryotic
What is antihelminthic drug therapy used for? Flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms
How does antihelminthic drug therapy work? Block reproduction
T/F: Antihelminthic drug therapy is usually successful in eradicating adult worms. False, they're unsuccessful.
What are mebendazoles and thiabendazoles examples of? Antihelminthic drug therapy
Are mebendazoles and thiabendazoles broad or narrowed spectrum? Broad spectrum
Is antihelminthic drug therapy a good or great target? Why? Good target because like helminth cells, we are also eukaryotic
What is an interferon (IFN)? It is a neighborhood watch
What do interferons do? Let's "neighborhood" known that theres a nearby virus
What is an adaptive response in which microorganisms begin to tolerate an amount of drug that would ordinarily be inhibitory called? Drug Resistance
What is intrinsic drug resistance? Drug resistance that has always had microbial tolerant to a drug
What is acquired drug resistance? Drug resistance that received microbial tolerant from a neighboring population
What are MRSA, TB, gonerrhea, and clamydia common examples of what? Examples of drug resistant drugs
What is the following description addressing? - Limit drug use - Don't misuse drug - Take full dosages prescribed - Avoid broad narrow antibiotics How to prevent drug resistance
T/F: We are infected on a daily basis because we are always colonized (exposed to microbes). False, we are colonized on a daily basis but NOT infected
What is the following explaining: 1. Host 2. Pathogen - Cross host defenses - Multiply Infection
What is a disease? An infection caused by a pathological state
What is an infectious disease? An infection caused by microbes
What are microbes on the human body that outnumber human cells at least ten to one. Resident Biota
What is resident biota also known as? Normal flora
What does the human body provide normal flora with? (Hint: 4 things) - Constant nourishment and moisture - Stable pH - Stable temperature - A surface to settle on
What are resident microbes? Particular to a specific site
What are transient microbes? Passerby's - do not normally reside
What are opportunist microbes? Cause disease when given the opportunity
What two body systems are the only ones without normal flora? Nervous and Cardiovascular
What are the 3 ways in which normal flora can be acquired? - Birth canal - Food - Breathing
What is the natural succession of acquiring normal flora via birth canal? Lactobacilli
What is the natural succession of acquiring normal flora via food? Coliforms
What is the natural succession of acquiring normal flora via breathing? Anaerobes
What are the benefits of normal flora? (Hint: There's 3) - Excludes potential pathogens - Improves host nutrition - Stimulates immune
What is a microbe whose relationship with its host is parasitic and results in infection and disease? A pathogen
T/F: The type and severity of infection depends on the conditions of the host. True - things such as age, low immunity, stress, surgery, organ transplant and other factors all play into the type and severity of infection.
What is an organism's potential to cause infection or disease? Pathogenicity
What are true pathogens? Pathogens that ALWAYS cause disease
What are pathogens called that are harmless, but can cause disease if given the opportunity? Opportunistic pathogens
What is an example of an opportunistic pathogen? Yeast
What is the degree of pathogenicity called? Virulence
Define virulence. How well equipped a pathogen is to cause disease
What is a virulence factor? Any characteristic or structure of the microbe that contributes to its virulence
Name the 5 steps for establishing infection/disease? 1. Portal of Entry 2. Attach to host 3. Survive host defenses 4. Cause disease 5. Exit
T/F: Each microbe must enter the body by only their specified portal of entry. True, they must find the right one.
What is the portal of entry for the greatest number of pathogens? Respiratory Tract
What is the portal of entry that is very tough to penetrate when intact? Skin
What is the portal of entry are for the pathogens that are ingested via food or drinks? Gastrointestinal Tract
What is the portal of entry are for the pathogens that enter via penis, external genitalia, vagina, cervix, or urethra? Urogenital
T/F: Microbes can't cross the placenta. False, some microbes can cross the placenta.
What does perinatally mean? Through birth canal
What does T.O.R.C.H stand for? Toxoplasmosis Other disease Rubella Cytomegalovirus Herpes simplex
What is Toxoplasmosis? Protozoan flu-like disease
What are some other diseases that can occur perinatally? Syphilis, AIDS, chlamydia, chicken pox, coxsackie virus
What is VZ virus? Chicken pox
What is Rubella? German measles
What is Cytomegalovirus? Like herpes
What is I.D? The min number of a pathogen required for infection to proceed
How does a high virulence affect the infectious dose? Smaller IDs have greater virulence - & vice versa
What are some of the virulence factors that aid infection in attaching to the host? (Name 5) Frimbiae Slime layer Viral spikes Capsid proteins Capsules
What are viral spikes? Viral attachment proteins
What are WBCs that engulf and destroy pathogens? Phagocytes
T/F: Virulence factors aid in tissue damage. True, they do.
What are 2 examples of direct damage? - Exoenzymes - Toxins
What is an examples of indirect damage? When a pathogen causes excessive or inappropriate host response
What do extracellular enzymes do? Break down and inflict damage on tissues or dissolve the host's defense barriers
What are 4 examples of extracellular enzymes? - Mucinase - Keratinase - Collagenase - Coagulase
What does Mucinase do? Digests protective coating on mucous membrane
What does Keratinase do? Digests principal components of skin and hair
What does Collagenase do? Digests principal fiber of connective tissue
What does Coagulase do? Causes clotting of the blood or plasma
What are specific chemicals that are poisonous to other organisms? Bacterial toxins
What is toxigenicity? Power to produce toxins
What is toxinoses? Variety of diseases caused by toxins
What is it called when the toxins in toxinoses spread by the blood from the site of infection? Toxemia
What is it called when toxinoses is caused by ingestion of toxins? Intoxication
What are the ways bacterial toxins act according to their specific target of action? (Hint: There's 4 ways) - Neurotoxins - Enterotoxins - Hemotoxins - Nephrotoxins
What do Neurotoxins act on? The nervous system
What do Enterotoxins act on? The intestines
What do Hemotoxins act on? RBCs
What do Nephrotoxins act on? The kidneys
What are the ways bacterial toxins act according to their origin? (Hint: There's 2 ways) - Exotoxins - Endotoxins
T/F: Exotoxins have a target. True, they do have a target.
What are endotoxins preserved for? Gram negative (blebs)
What do you call it when accumulated damage leads to cell and tissue death? Necrosis
What is a localized pattern of infection? When a microbe enters the body and remains confined to a specific tissue
What is a systemic pattern of infection? When infection spreads to different organs and systems, usually through bloodstream
What is a focal pattern of infection? When an infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried into other tissues
What is a mixed pattern of infection? When several agents infect one site
What pattern of infection are polymicrobial diseases? Mixed
What is a chronic pattern of infection? Is progressive but persists over time
What is an acute pattern of infection? Comes on fast, but is short lived
T/F: Portal of Exits leave through the same Portal of Entries. True, they exit through respiratory, salivary, skin, urogenital, and blood the same way they enter.
What occurs during the incubation period? No symptoms are shown _____
What occurs during the prodromal stage? Symptoms begin to show _____/
What occurs during invasion? Symptoms spike / _____/
What occurs during convalescence? Symptoms subside (recovery & chronic carriers) / \ _____/ \
What are signals of a disease? Signs and symptoms
What is a sign? Any objective evidence (measurable)
T/F: Symptoms are measurable. False, signs are measurable.
What is a symptom? Any subjective evidence (feelings)
When a disease can be identified or defined by a certain complex of signs and symptoms what is it called? Syndrome
What is an examaple of a syndrome? AIDS
What are asymptomatic infections? When a host is infected but manifests no noticeable symptoms
What is the activation of the body defense process? Inflammation
What is the accumulation of fluid in the afflicted tissue? Edema
What are walled-off collections of inflammatory cells and microbes in the tissues? Granulomas or abscesses
What is lymphadenitis? Swollen lymph nodes
What is a lesion? The site of infection or disease
What is leukocytosis? Increased WBCs
What is leukopenia? Decreased WBCs
What is it called when microorganisms actively multiplying in the blood? Septicemia
What is it called when microorganisms are present in the blood but not actively multiplying? Bacteremia or viremia
What is latency? A dormant stage
What is Epstein-Barr? Mono
What is sequelae? Long-term or permanent damage to tissues or organs
T/F: Microbes can periodically become active and produce a recurrent disease. True, they can.
What is a reservoir? The primary habitat in the natural world from which a pathogen originates
What is the individual or object from which an infection is actually acquired? The source
There are two types of carriers, what are they? Non-living and living carriers
What type of carrier is gonorrhea? Asymptomatic carrier
What type of carrier is AIDS? Incubation carrier
What type of carrier is diphtheria? Convalescent carrier
What type of carrier is typhoid fever? Chronic carrier
What type of carrier are patient care personnel? Passive carrier
What is a live animal that transmits an infectious agent from one host to another? A vector
What are the majority of vectors? Arthropods
What is a biological vector? An active aiding in a pathogen's life cycle
What is an example of a biological vector? Mosquito
What is a mechanical vector? Transportation of an infectious agent
What is an example of a mechanical vector? House flies
What is it when an infection is indigenous to animals but can be transmissible to humans? Zoonosis
What is an example of zoonosis? Rabies
What is noncommunicable disease? When a disease does not arise through transmission of the infectious agent
How do noncommunicable diseases occur? When normal flora does not do what it needs to do
How are noncommunicable diseases acquired? Through some other, special circumstances
What is an example of a noncommunicable disease? Brain-eating anemia (water = nonliving reservoir)
What is communicable disease? When an infected host transmits the infectious agent to another host
How do communicable diseases occur? Person to person
What are some examples of communicable diseases? Flu, cold, or STI
T/F: A contagious agent is highly communicable. True, it is highly communicable.
What are 4 direct forms of transmission in communicable diseases? - Contact - Droplets - Vertical (perent to offspring) - Biological vector
What are 3 indirect forms of transmission in communicable diseases? - Fomites (ex. door knob) - Food, water, bio products
What are indirect forms of transmission in communicable diseases also known as? Vehicles
What are hospital acquired infections called? Nosocomial Infections
What is the goal of nosocomial infections? Avoid contamination
How are nosocomial infections controlled in hospital settings? Aseptic techniques
How many cases of nosocomial infections are there a year? 2-4 million
What is the most common type of nosocomial infection? Via urinary tract
What is the study of the frequency and distribution of disease and other health-related factors in defined human populations? Epidemiology
What is studied in epidemiology (8 subjects)? - Anatomy - Physiology - Immunology - Medicine - Psychology - Sociology - Ecology - Statistics
What is an epidemic? A sudden acute disease outbreak that affects many people
What is a pandemic? A worldwide epidemic
What is an endemic? Chronic occurrence in a geographical region
What is a sporadic? Random small outbreaks
Host Defenses break up into 2 branches: - Innate, nonspecific - Acquired, specific
What does innate mean? Born with
Under the innate, nonspecific branch fall the first 2 lines of defense, what are they? 1st Line: Barriers 2nd Line: Nonspecific mechanisms
What falls under the 1st Line of Defense: Barriers - Chemical, physical, genetic
What falls under the 2nd Line of Defense: Nonspecific mechanisms - Inflammation, Phagocytosis, Fever, & Antimicrobial proteins
What two types of antimicrobial proteins fall under the 2nd line of defense: Interferon & Complement
Under the acquired, specific branch falls the third line of defense: B cells - Produce antibodies T cells - Cell mediated immunity
Why is the 1st line of defense nonspecific? Because it doesn't need to know what the microorganism is, only that it's foreign & it doesn't belong to us
Describe 2 characteristics of the innate, nonspecific branch? - Always on guard - Doesn't improve with repeated exposure
What are the type of physical barriers in the 1st line of defense? Thick skin, cilia, and mucus
What are the type of chemical barriers in the 1st line of defense? (Name about 5 example) Lysozyme in tears/saliva, HCl in stomach, acidic pH of vagina, lactic acid and electrolytes in sweat, and digestive juices in bile
Why is the 3rd line of defense acquired? Exposure
Which line of defense are your "big guns" 3rd line of defense
What is the study of all features of the body's second and third lines of defense? Immunology
What is a healthy functioning immune system responsible for? - Body's surveillance (always active) - Recognition of foreign material - Destruction of foreign material
What do markers do? Mark self as self - or - non-self as non-self
Markers are carried out by what? WBCs
What are markers usually made up of? Proteins or sugar
What 4 systems are involved in the immune defenses? - Reticuloendothelial system (RES) - Extracellular fluid (ECF) - Lymphatic system - Bloodstream
What is the Reticuloendothelial system also known as? Integumentary system
What system does the thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen fall into? The integumentary system
What is the integumentary system heavily endowed with? Macrophages
What are macrophages? WBC that carries out non-specific phagocytosis
What does the lymphatic system do? Transports lymph through a system of vessels and lymph nodes?
What is the lymphatic system's primary function? Filter anything foreign (non-self)
What is lymph? Plasma-like liquid without the RBCs
Lymphatic vessels are located along what? Along lines of blood vessels
Lymph flows in only one direction: From extremities toward the heart
How if lymph moved along? Through the contraction of skeletal muscles
What site in the body are "dumps"? What shape are these organs? Lymph nodes, bean-shaped
What does the spleen do? Filters pathogens from the blood
What does the thymus do? Matures T-cells
What is GALT? Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue
What is MALT? Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue
What is BALT? Bronchial Associated Lymphoid Tissue
What system do tonsil and Peyer's patches belong to? Lymphatic system
What is serum? Plasma without clotting factors
What is plasma mostly made up of? Water
Define hematopoiesis. Production of blood cells
Where do ALL blood cells come from? Pluripotential stem cell
Where are pluripotential stem cells found in? Bone marrow
What is the process in which immature or unspecialized cells develop the specialized form and function of mature cells? Differentiation
What are thrombocytes? Platelets
What determines differentiation? Chemical signals
T/F: Cells come from cells. True
What are large cytoplasmic granules that have a lobed nucleus called? Granulocytes
What are neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils? Granulocytes or Agranulocytes? They're granulocytes
What are very small granules that have a rounded nucleus called? Agranulocytes
What are lymphocytes (B- & T-cells) and monocytes? Granulocytes or Agranulocytes? They're agranulocytes
What is the primary function of neutrophils? Phagocytize (AKA kill) bacteria
In what type of response are basophils important in? Allergic
What is the primary function of eosinophils? Attach and destroy eukaryotic pathogens (ex. fungal and worms)
T/F: Granules are digestive enzymes. True, they are.
In which line of defense do lymphocytes play a role? 3rd Line of Defense
Name the functions of monocytes. (Hint: There's about 4) Phagocytic functions, process and present foreign material to lymphocytes, secrete compounds to aid immune reaction
What is the primary function of erythrocytes? Transport oxygen and CO2 to and from tissues
What is the 2 primary functions of Platelets? - Hemostasis - Releasing chemicals for blood clotting and inflammation
Phagocytosis step 1: Phagocyte is attracted to bacteria
Phagocytosis step 2: Bacteria attached to Phagocyte thru their PAMPs
What are PAMPs? Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns AKA Pathogen markers
Phagocytosis step 3: Vacuoles are formed around bacteria during engulfment
Phagocytosis step 4: A digestive vacuole, phagosome, is formed
Phagocytosis step 5: Lysosomes fue with phagosomes, forming a phagolysosome
Phagocytosis step 6: Killing and destruction of bacterial cells
Phagocytosis step 7: Release of residual debris
What are the 5 classic signs and symptoms of inflammation? - Rubor - Calor - Tumor - Dolor - Loss of function
What is Rubor? Redness
What is Calor? Warmth
What is Tumor? Swelling
What is Dolor? Pain
What is the chief function of inflammation? Destroy microbes and prevents their spread
What are exudates? Fluid that escape through gaps in the walls of post-capillary venules
T/F: The accumulation of exudates prevents edema. False, is causes edema, not prevents it.
How do WBCs leave the blood vessels and go into tissue spaces? Diapedesis
What is chemotaxis? The tendency of WBCs to migrate in response to a specific chemical stimulus
What are the2 benefits of fluid in tissues in the inflammatory response? - Dilutes toxin - Traps microbes and prevents spread
What is responsible for controlling fever in the body? Hypothalamus
What do pyrogens do? Set the hypothalamic "thermostat" to a higher setting
Which anti-microbial protein is a warning system? Interferon
What is the final product of the anti-microbial protein complement? MACs
Whats are MACs? "Donuts" - Membrane attack complex
What do MACs do? Kills the cell by making holes in the cell membrane
What is Specific Immunity? Your Third and final Line of defense
What is acquired only after an immunizing event? (ex. Infection or Vaccination) Specific Immunity
Define Immunocompetence. The body's ability to react to foreign substances
What develops B and T lymphocytes? Immunocompetence
Name two characterizing features of the third line of defense. specificity and memory
What does Specificity and Memory do in the third line of defense? Only recognize certain (specific) pathogens
Define Antigen. Anything foreign that activate B-cells and T-cells
What can an antigen also be known as? Immunogen
Define Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Series of glycoproteins (MHC molecules) found on the surface of all cells EXCEPT red blood cells
What does Red Blood Cells not have MCH? Red blood cells have its own special markers
If MCH is ABSENT, what will happen to the cell? The cell will be destroyed by the immune system
What are the 2 main functions of MHC - Mark Self verses Self - Present Antigens
T/F: MHC are proteins. True, they are.
Do B-cells and T-cells need to work together? Yes.
What is a high level of communication between B-cells and T-cells important? Because when antigens are presented, both B-cells and T-cells need to be activated
What are the steps of the Development of Dual Lymphocyte System? Step 1: Lymphocyte Development Step 2: Presentation of Antigens Step 3: T-cell Response --> Antibodies Step 4: T-cell Response --> Cell-mediated immunity
What occurs in Step 1: Lymphocyte Development? All lymphocytes arise from the same basic stem cell type
Where do Lymphocytes come from? come from Pluripotential stem cells
What is Pluripotential? Stem cells having the developmental plasticity to give rise to more than one type. Example: undifferentiated blood cells in the bone marrow.
What does Final Maturation of B-cells occur? In specialized Bone Marrow sites
Where does Final Maturation of T-cells occur? In the Thymus
After maturation of B-cells and T-cells where to they migrate to? Separate areas in the lymphoid organs "going to the dump to shop"
What 4 Specific Events occur in B-cell Maturation? - Bone marrow sites have stromal cells - Stromal cells nurture lymphocytes & initiate B-cell development - Circulate thru blood, "homing" to specific sites in lymph nodes, spleen, & GALT - Adhere to specific binding & come into contact with antigens
Describe the characteristics of a B-Cell Receptor. - Immunoglobulin receptors (Igs) - Y-shaped arrangement - Can be highly variable in shape to fit a wide range of antigens Variable regions (V) - Fork - changes Constant regions (C)-Handle - remains the same
What 3 Specific Events occur in T-Cell Maturation? - Directed by the thymus gland and its hormones -Circulate between the lymphatic and circulatory system, migrating to specific T-cell areas of the lymph nodes and spleen - Mature T lymphocytes express T-cell receptor and co-receptors (CD-4 or CD-8)
Describe the characteristics of a T-Cell Receptor - Constant Region - Variable Region - Antigen binding site - Co-Receptor - Never Secreted; always attached
What is Immunological Diversity? In how many ways can these be arranged? 500 gene segments that can be rearranged to produce diverse receptor types - Infinite ways to arrange
Immunological Diversity *Different B and T cells are made which leads to specificity *By the time B and T cells reach the lymphoid tissue they are equipped to respond to a single, unique antigen *Each line of lymphocytes is termed a clone
What are the 5 Antigenic Molecules? - Proteins and polypeptides - Lipoproteins - Nucleoproteins - Polysaccharides - Haptens
What are Proteins and polypeptides as antigens? Enzymes, cell surface structure, hormones, exotoxins
What are Lipoproteins as an antigen? Cell membrane
What are Nucleoproteins as an antigen? DNA complexes to proteins but not pure DNA
What are Polysacchararides as an antigen? Certain bacterial capsules
What are Haptens as an antigen? Small foreign molecules that are too small to elicit an immune response on their own (Extra information: if linked yo a larger carrier molecule, them the combination develops IMMUNOGENICITY)
Role of antigen processing and presentation *Produce APCs *Engulf the antigen and modify it so it is more immunogenic and recognizable - Epitope *After processing, the antigen is bound to the MHC receptor and moved to the surface of the APC so it is acces
What are APC? Antigen-presenting cells: cells that act upon and formally present antigens to lymphocytes *Macrophages *Dendritic cells (related to macrophages) *B cells
What occurs in Step 3 & 4: B-Cell Response? Activation of B Lymhocytes *Clonal section and binding of antigen *Antigen processing and presentation *B-cell/ T-cell recognition and copperation (T- Helper) *B-cell activation *Clonal expansion (copies) *Antibody production and secretion *Plasma cells
What are Memory Cells? Long term B-cells
What are Plasma Cells? Antibody producer factors that is fighting right now
Name and describe main function of the Classes of Immunoglobulins (Igs). B cell receptors (weight and arrangement) IgM- 1st one made during an infection IgA- important in mucosal defense IgD- acts as a receptor IgG- most prevalent AB IgE- Allergies
Antigen- Antibody Interactions : Opsonization Plasma cells - antibodies marking it for "death" Result: death
Antigen- Antibody Interactions: Neutralization not allowing microorganisms to attach Result: death
Antigen- Antibody Interactions: Agglutination Accumulate; stick together which prevents it from doing what its suppose to do Result: death
Antigen- Antibody Interactions: Complement fixation Antibodies call in complement which produces MACs (donuts) Result: death
Antigen- Antibody Interactions: Antitoxin Antibodies bind to toxin & don't allow it to find its target Results: death
Monitoring Ab Production: Primary Response *First exposure *Latent period- lack of antibodies synthesis *Synthesis of antibodies -first IgM, second IgG, then some IgM ad IgA *Titers (In immunochemistry, a measure of antibody level in a patient, determined
Monitoring Ab Production: Secondary Response *Re-expossre to the same immunogens *Antibody synthesis, titer, and length of antibody persistence is rapid and amplified *primary due to memory cells
What occurs in Step 3 & 4: T- Cell Response Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) *require the direct involvement of T lymphocytes throughout the course of the reaction *T cells require some type of MHC recognition before they can be activated *T cells stimulate other T cells, B cells, and phagocytes
Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) *require the direct involvement of T lymphocytes throughout the course of the reaction *T cells require some type of MHC recognition before they can be activated *T cells stimulate other T cells, B cells, and phagocytes *Cytok *require the direct involvement of T lymphocytes throughout the course of the reaction *T cells require some type of MHC recognition before they can be activated *T cells stimulate other T cells, B cells, and phagocytes *Cytok
What is Cytokine production? Production of chemicals produced by T- cells that tell other cells what to do
T cell Activation and Differentiation *Recognize an antigen only with an MHC carrier *T cell is sensitized when an antigen/ MHC complex is bound to its receptors *The activated T cells then transform in preparation for mitotic divisions and differentiate
T Helper Cells (T H) *Play a central role in regulating immune reactions to antigens *Involved in activating Macrophages -directly by receptor contact -indirect y by releasing cytokines
T Helper Cells (T H) *Secrete interleukin-2 (type of cytokine) *some secrete interleukin- 4,5, and 6 (help activate B-cells)
T Helper Cells (Th): secrete interleukin- 4,5, and 6 stimulate various activities of B-cells secrete interleukin- 4,5, and 6 stimulate various activities of B-cells
Regulatory T Cells (Tr) *T-cells regualte *Maintain "Happy Medium" *Carry CD4 markers *Control Inflammation *Prevent Autoimmunity *Prevent immune response against normal flora
Cytotoxic T Cells (Tc) *Cytotoxicity *Target cells that Tc cells can destroy include: Virally infected cells, cancer cells, and cells from other animals and humans *After activation the Tc cell severely injures the target cell- secrerion of perforins and
What is Cytotoxicity? The capacity to kill a specific target cell
What are Perforins? Proteins released by cytotoxic T cells that poke holes in target cells
What is Granzymes? Digestive Enzymes secreted by cytotoxic T cells that eat up the target cell
Natural Killer Cells (NKC) *Related to T- cells *Lack specificity for antigens *Circulate through the spleen, blood, and lungs *Probably the first killer cells to attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells
Vaccines Whole bacterial cell or virus -Killer cells or inactive viruses- dead -Live, attenuated cells or viruses- softened Antigenic molecules derived from bacterial cells or viruses
Whole bacterial cells or virus: Dead dead organisms are safest less effective immunogens wrong POE (portal of entry)
Whole bacterial cells or virus: Live live organisms offer better response mimic actual infection mutate back to virulent form
Created by: paula_10