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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian HIST 10 Ch 17 "Revolution & Enlightenment"

What is the "Scientific Method"? This is "a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence". This was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world. (Pg. 545)
What does the term "geocentric" mean/refer to? This term refers to "the belief that the Earth is at the center of the universe". (Pg. 540)
What does the term "heliocentric" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the belief in a 'sun-centered' view of the universe". This is the idea that the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun. (Pg. 540)
List one (1) of Galileo Galilei's discoveries. He discovered mountains on the moon, the fact that Jupiter has 4 moons, and the phenomenon of sunspots using a telescope. (Pg. 540)
List one (1) of Nicolaus Copernicus' discoveries. He came up with the idea that the sun was the center of our universe and that the planets rotate around it in an elliptical pattern. (Pg. 540)
List one (1) of Johannes Kepler's discoveries. He used mathematics to prove that the path that the planets traveled around the sun was elliptical. This is known as "Kepler's First Law". (Pg. 540)
List one (1) of Isaac Newton's discoveries. He came up with the "universal law of gravitation" which stated: every object in the universe it attracted to every other object by a force called gravity. This, he said, explains all motion in the universe. (Pg. 541)
List one (1) of Margaret Cavendish's contributions to the Scientific Revolution. She was ". . . critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were the masters of nature." (Pg. 542)
List one (1) of Maria Winkelmann's contributions to the Scientific Revolution. As one of the first female astronomers, she ". . . made several original contributions to astronomy, including the discovery of a comet." (Pg. 542)
Who came up with the idea of the "scientific method"? English philosopher Francis Bacon came up with this idea. (Pg. 545)
What does the term "rationalism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the system of thought that is "based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge". (Pg. 545)
List three (3) Enlightenment Ideals that we learned about in class. 1.) People should focus on things that they can see and prove; 2.) Reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy; 3.) Separation of church and state. (Class Notes.)
What does the term "Enlightened Absolutism" mean/ refer to? This refers to the idea that monarchs (i.e. kings & queens) would have absolute power, yet try to use Enlightenment ideals to guide their decisions. (Class Notes & Vocab.)
List three (3) of the things that author Victor Hugo believed about revolts & revolutions (from "Les Miserables", Ch. 1, Book 10). 1.) Revolts start small & spread quickly; 2.) Revolutions can strengthen governments if they can survive them; 3.) Revolutions have been harmful to France. ("Les Miserables" notes.)
List the name of the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession. The name of this treaty was the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle (1748).
What were the conditions of the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession? All occupied territories except Silesia were returned to their original owners. (Pg. 558)
List three (3) characteristics of the "rococo" artistic style that began in the 1730's. 1.) It emphasized "grace, charm, & gentle action"; 2.) "Made use of delicate designs colored in gold with graceful curves"; 3.) It was highly secular, focusing on "...the pursuit of pleasure, happiness, & love". (Pgs. 562 & 563)
List the names of three (3) composers who began writing music in 18th century Europe. 1.) Bach; 2.) Mozart; 3.) Handel. (Pg. 563)
What does the term "salon" mean/ refer to where 18th century Europe is concerned? These were elegant "drawing rooms" where 18th century writers, artists, & wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss Enlightenment ideals. Helped spread these ideals across Europe. (Pg. 552)
How does Adam Smith - an 18th century philosopher - relate to the term "laissez-faire"? He wrote about this idea - that the government should not interfere in economic matters - in his book "The Wealth of Nations".
What three (3) things did Adam Smith believe that the government SHOULD do? 1.) Protect society from invasion; 2.) Defend citizens from injustice (the function of police); 3.) Keep up public works that private citizens can't afford (such as roads & canals). (Pg. 550)
Created by: sticklerpjpII